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雅思阅读:高龄化社会中人口老化衍生的问题

2013年03月11日09:38
作者:沪江英语
 


  近年来,老年人的现状颇为引人关注,由于子女不在身边或者子女工作忙,导致老人感到孤独。作为子女,孝敬老人是好事。但孝敬老人不光是要接到城里来,还要抽出点时间来多陪陪他们。

  人口老化:population aging

  人口老化是指某地某时期内总人口中老年人口比例增加的动态过程。根据联合国世界卫生组织定义,65岁以上老年人口占总人口的比例达百分之七时,称为“高龄化社会”(aging society);达到百分之十四时称为“高龄社会”(aged society);如果老年人口比例达到百分之二十时,则称为“超高龄社会”(hyper-aged society)。人口老化多见于发达国家,特别是欧洲国家。由于计划生育的影响,中国已于1999年进入了老龄化社会,在2004年底65岁以上人口占总人口比例为7.6%。

  Among the countries currently classified by the United Nations as more developed (with a total population of 1.2 billion in 2005), the overall median age rose from 29.0 in 1950 to 37.3 in 2000, and is forecast to rise to 45.5 by 2050. The corresponding figures for the world as a whole are 23.9 in 1950, 26.8 in 2000, and 37.8 in 2050. In Japan, one of the fastest ageing countries in the world, in 1950 there were 9.3 people under 20 for every person over 65. By 2025 this ratio is forecast to be 0.59 people under 20 for every person older than 65.

  人口老龄化问题已经成为了全球性的问题,联合国对此进行了一系列调查。

  Population aging arises from two (possibly related) demographic effects: increasing longevity and declining fertility. An increase in longevity raises the average age of the population by increasing the numbers of surviving older people. A decline in fertility reduces the number of babies, and as the effect continues, the numbers of younger people in general also reduce. A possible third factor is migration.

  人口老化的两大原因是——人们寿命的延长和生育率的降低。

  养老院:retirement home ; nursing home

  由许鞍华执导,刘德华、叶德娴主演的电影《桃姐》近来在国际各大电影奖项上都取得了优异的成绩,也引起了大家对孤独老人这一社会现象的热议。电影中老佣人桃姐在中风后自己选择住进养老院。

  A retirement home is a multi-residence housing facility intended for senior citizens. Typically each person or couple in the home has an apartment-style room or suite of rooms. Additional facilities are provided within the building, including facilities for meals, gathering, recreation, and some form of health or hospice care.The number of retirement homes has been increasing in the United States, from almost 11,000 in 2005 to 12,000 in 2010. The market size for retirement homes has had a much greater growth rate, from $13.5 billion in 2005 to $17 billion in 2010, with California being the American state with the largest market size.

  养老院是为老年人提供养老服务的社会福利事业组织。在西方国家,养老院通常由地方政府或慈善机构主办,接收靠福利救济或低收入的老人。中国的敬老院是在农村实行“五保”的基础上发展起来的。

  截至2009年,我国60岁以上的人口已达1.67亿人,占总人口的12.5%,占全世界老龄人口的1/5,成为世界上唯一老龄人口过亿的国家。如此压力下中国的养老现状也并不乐观,私人养老院费用昂贵,公立养老院严重不足,住不起、住不进、住哪里,正成为老年人的养老心病。

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