1. It may have been a sharp criticism of the pupil’s technical abilities in writing, but it was also a sad reflection on the teacher who had omitted to read the essay, which contained some beautiful expressions of the child’s deep feelings.
2. They have the wisdom that comes with age that we cannot make use of.
3. The first time that the question “ What is at the bottom of the oceans?” had to be answered with any commercial consequence was when the laying of a telegraph cable from Europe to America was proposed.
4. It is not unusual for a child to have four parents and eight grandparents!
5. Neither, in the case of chicken, can one eat feathers, blood, feet or head.
6. Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without government, I should not hesitate a moment prefer the latter.
7. It was to Brad Pitt of the US Navy that the Atlantic Telegraph Company turned, in 1853, for information on this matter.
8. The dark clouds having dispersed, the sun shone again.
1. have none of: 不参加；不准；不接受
I will have none of your stupid ideas!
2. none but (=nothing but): 只有 (=only)
None but the brave deserves the fair.
She is nothing but a child.
3. none other than: （表示惊讶）不是别人，正是…… (= no one else but)
It’s none other than Tom! We thought you were in Africa.
4. none the +比较级词+ for: 毫不，一点也不
He spent three weeks in hospital but he’s none the better for it.
5. none the wiser: 不知情
6. none too (在形容词或副词前) 不太；一点都不
The service in this restaurant is none too fast. 这家旅馆的服务一点效率都没有。
7. anything but: ①除---之外什么都（此处的but等于except）②决不(=not at all)
I eat anything but (except) fish.
She is anything but a good cook..
8. anything of: ①（疑问句/条件句）一点点；②（否定句）一点也（没有）
Is he anything of a poet?
I haven’t seen anything of him lately.
9. for anything: (否定句)（给什么都）不，决不
I won’t go there for anything.
10. or anything: （意味着还有其他的可能性）
If Jeneffer wants to call me or anything, I’ll be here all day.
11. if anything: 若有任何不同的话
If anything, my new job is harder than my old one.
12. or something: 或什么的（表示说话者不能肯定）
She is a stewardess or something.
13. something like: 有点像，大约
The reading lamp is shaped something like a cigar.
14. something of a...: 多少有点，有几分像，略懂
John is something of a book collector.
15. something to / in: （叙述等）有些道理
There’s something to / in what you say; I’ll take your advice.
16. have / be something to do with: 与……有关
I think Weber had / was something to do with a plan to blow up the bridge.
17. for nothing: ①免费的； ②徒劳的； ③无缘无故的
She got the ticket for nothing.
They quarreled for nothing.
18. make nothing of: (常和can一起用)不理解；不重视,轻视 (= think nothing of)
I could make nothing of the passage.
19. to say nothing of: 更不用说（= not to mention / without mentioning）
Three people were badly hurt, to say nothing of damage to the building.
20. have nothing to do with: 与……无关
21. nothing if not: 格外地；非常地 (= very / much / extremely)
22. nothing of: 无……的部分；无……的气质
There was nothing of the lady in her behavior.
23. all but 几乎，差一点，除……以外其余都是
24. but for要不是
25. but that+从句：若不是……
26. only + to do: “……，结果却……”，(表示与句子谓语动作的目的相反的结果)
They hurried there only to find the meeting canceled.
27. not more / -er than 与 no more / -er than 结构
John is not better than Tom.
John is no better than Tom.
no richer than = as poor as 和……一样穷
no bigger than = as small as 和……一样小
no later than = as early as 和……一样早
28. no more...than... (= not...any more than) 和……—样都不……(表示前后都否定)
The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.
A man cannot fly any more than a bird can speak.
29. no less than : 简直是，实在是
It is no less than a scandal.
30. not nearly (=by no means，far from) 远不
31. much less/still less
to say nothing of/not to speak of/not to mention/let alone: 更不用说
I could not agree to, much less participate in such proceedings.
I did not even see him, still less (= much less) shake hands with him.
I can't add two and two, let alone do fractions.
32. nothing else than 完全是，实在是
What you said was nothing else than nonsense.
33. not …but…不是……，而是……
34. can not...too... 再……也不过分
You cannot be too careful when you drive a car.
35. other...than... 或other than... 不同于，非；除了
36. ... the last + n. + 不定式或定语从句：意为“…最不可能的……”
That's the last thing I'd expect you to do.
37. It goes without saying that．．． 不言而喻，……
It goes without saying that in order to speak good English, we must first of all learn words.
38. It is common knowledge that… 众所周知，……
It is common knowledge now that Chinese people are very intelligent.
38. It occurs to sb. that… (某人) 想起……
It occurred to me suddenly that I had met him somewhere.
39 . ... not so much...... as (but) ... 与其说……还不如说……
.... not so much that.....as (but) that...... 与其说……还不如说……
. ... not so much as..... (=not even) 甚至于不……，连……也不……
... might as well ... as..... 与其说……还不如说……
40. more ... than ...
Sunny is more beautiful than her sister.
George is more intelligent than aggressive.
John is less daring than quick-witted.
Tom was less intelligent than aggressive.
1) With the rapid improvement in.../growing awareness of..., more and more.../sth....
2) Recently, sth./the problem of...has been brought to popular attention/ has become the focus of public concern. A
3) One of the universal issues we are faced with/that cause increasing concern is that...
4) In the past few years, there has been a boom/sharp growth/decline in.. .
5) Nowadays, more/most important/dangerous for our society is...
6) According to the information given in the table/graph, we can find that...
7) As can be seen from the table/graph/figure, there is a marked increase /decline/favorable (an unfavorable) change in...
8) As we can see from the table/graph/figure above, drastic/considerable/ great changes have taken place in...over the period of time from...(年份)to...( 年份)
9) The table/graph shows that there is a(n) declining/increasing trend of ...from...(年份) to...(年份)
10) Anyone who takes a closer look at the data in the table/graph can be surprised to find that...
11) It is a traditional practice to...in our society.
12) It has long been considered only right and proper to...(in China.)
13) As things usually go against sb.'s will, his original intention was to...
14) The current situation of..., if approached from the opposite angle, reveals that...
15) Everything about...seems (not) to be getting on smoothly/just as one wishes in...
16) To sb.'s mind/In sb.'s eye(s), sth. seems/means...
17) No one would deny that.../Everyone would agree that...
18) When it comes to...(sth.), most people (the public) maintain(s)/contend(s) that...
19) Now it is widely believed that...
20) A public debate has arisen as to/over/concerning...
21) All that sth. has done for our society seems like a big step forward in the right/wrong direction, but it has also brought along with a great worry /benefit to...(the average people.)
22) The birth/invention of...has made an enormous/essential difference to ...But it does not mean that...
23) Sth. has changed the way our society develops....But its bright side should not keep us from following closely its dark side.
(sth.: the genetic engineering, etc.)
24) Things about...are going on to our advantage, but a long cool look at ...reveals that...
25) No/Little doubt that...But...
26) What does sth. mean?
27) How/Why does sth. affect our life?
28) What is it like to do...?
29) What would our society be like if there were no...?
30) Should we put sth. above sth. else?/Should we attach as much weight to A as to B?
31) Sth. is often referred to as/defined as...
32) (Doing) Sth. is just the same as.../is compared to.../is likened to.. ./is like...
33) Sth. is to...what sth. else is to...
34) To/For/With most people/sb., sth. is/means...
35) Sth. is the symbol/mark/equivalent of.../is symbolic of.../is equivalent to...
36) Suppose/Imagine that.../Let's suppose/assume/imagine (that)...
37) We often find ourselves caught/involved in a dilemma whether...
38) If/In case/In the event that..., it is better to.../a better course is to.../sb. has no choice/option/alternative but to.../all we want to know is ho w...
39) Unfortunately, sth. may affect sb.'s life to the point where...
40) In our life, there often appears such an occasion when.../on which... (或it often happens that...)
41) “...” That is how one of the great minds/scientists/writers remarked on...
42) One of the great sociologists/psychologists has said:“...”
43) “...” Such is the accurate exposition/exposure of...frequently over heard in public.
44) How often nowadays we hear such remarks/complaints/words as this “...” or “...”!
45) One of the great men once said that...
46) Once in a newspaper/magazine, I hit upon the report that...
47) One day, I happened to witness the incident as follows:...
48) The scientific studies/statistics show/indicate that...
49) Every weekend it can be seen sb. go about...
1) To prevent this phenomenon/trend from worsening/running wide/To guide the matter/situation to the best advantage, it is necessary/important to...
2) In the face of...some people take the position that.../some people come to believe that..., to which I can't attach/add my consent.
3) Although lots of people follow the fashion/trend, I still set my heart on...
4) To get a sense of how...we must turn first to causes for it/to what benefit (harm/problems/difference) it has brought to our society.
5) This is a (n) favorable/unfavorable/unhealthy/essential/marked/grateful change/tendency/situation, but factors/causes/reasons for it are not hard to find(或but its appearance/existence derives from a variety of factors).
6) The progress/improvement/change(s) in...is(are) really tremendous/remarkable/prodigious/marvelous, so it is necessary to understand (see) what it (they) illustrate (s)/prove(s)/account(s) for.
7) A comparison between these changes may be a good way to learn more about...
8) More insight/inspiration/truth/thought can be deduced from these changes.
9) This situation/phenomenon/trend/tendency is rather distressing/disturb ing/depressing/heart-rending, for the opposite of it is just in line with our wishes/just what is to be expected.
10) This is what we are unwilling to see, so some way must be found out to...
11) A further/deeper analysis/study/exposure of.../A further comparison between...can reveal more about.../can show us more ways to...(how to...)
12) If you push the analysis/study/argument/comparison/exposure further, you will see that...
13) The same is true of many cases in life.
14) Now, let's see what would happen to...in this case/light(或in different conditions/circumstances).
15) Perhaps, it is ideal/high/ripe time for us to tackle/handle/answer/take up the question in no half-hearted manner.
16) If/When adopted to account for/define/expose..., it can come in different meanings.
17) Our life abounds with examples in point./The truth in the definition goes for/is applicable to many cases in our life.
18) Once/If hit/cursed/overwhelmed with such troubles/straits/matters, you'd better/I would (not) do something about them to find your/my way out.
19) If this is true/the case, what accounts for such an issue:...
20) If that remark still holds water now, the situation (trend/phenomenon) in question should make us ponder about what harm/benefit/influence it will bring to us/about how it will affect our society.
21) His voice arouses echoes among people of insight, who have come up with some practical measures.
22) His/Her story is not unusual/rare, it is typical of thousands of people who are following his/her lead, so some people have abundant reason to ask how this came into being/how this will affect our future life/what measures should be taken to cope with it.
23) The results of this survey/questionnaire have aroused/drawn nationwide / public attention/concern, which is why some great efforts are being made by our government/society.
24) What this survey reveals is cold and hard, so the top priority task f or us to set about is to...
25) Most people have realized the seriousness/potential of what this survey exposes, so...
26) When adopted to define different things/people, sth. comes in a variety of flavors/tastes/meanings/values/senses. A
1) It is true/There is no need to deny that...But it does not mean...
2) Although it is widely believed that..., it can not stand close/cold scrutiny/analysis/examination.
3) Admittedly/True/Obviously/Indeed, the issue in question. ... But one basic/vital fact is being left out of our analysis/consideration, namely/that is,...
4) Those in favor of the issue in question argue/contend/hold/maintain/claim that...But what they fail to consider/analyze/see/find out is that...
5) Superficially/On the surface/At first glance(thought)/In appearance, the issue in question seems...But in fact(on second thoughts/on close examination/in substance),...
6) But many people feel puzzled about/perplexed at/over whelmed with...(the changes/situation), so this essay is intended to...
7) Some (people) argue/claim/believe/hold that... But others set (put) forth a different argument about/oppositive views on the matter in question.
8) Fortunately, however, more and more people come/begin to realize that ...
9) Unfortunately, things have worsened/come/developed to the point where ...
10) But have you ever stopped to think what/how/why...?
11) Some take the view that...And/But on the other hand, others argue for the opposite view that...
12) If we take a further/colder/closer look at this problem/matter, however, more secrets/grounds/chances/ways will be found out for...
13) But this (dis)agreement ceases to exist as soon as...
14) Some (people) respond/react to...by...But others behave/act in the other direction/in the opposite way.
15) To be frank, I have turned the question over and over in my mind, but found no reason to sidestep it; so here are my ways to.../my reasons for...
16) I was once cursed/perplexed/seized with this question, but I have forged/made my own way out of it.
17) People from different backgrounds, however, put different interpretations on the same thing.
18) But different people hold completely different views as to its nature.
19) If it is intended for..., however, the divergence of outlook on it ceases to continue while a new meaning to it begins to stand out.
20) In that case, however, I prefer to...rather than...
21) (Un)Fortunately, there are still some people who act in the other way around.
22) I was once caught/stuck in the same situation/context, but I managed to lift myself out of it.
23) When exposed to/subject to the same conditions/challenge/choice, however, different people tend to behave in different ways.
24) Some (people) advocate/endorse/favor/are for (或oppose/object to/are against)... Yet others stick to/hold on to/cling to the opposite views/argument/points.
25) His view is voiced by more and more people, but finds no echo in my heart.
26) His/Her case is not unique, and now more and more...(But...)
27) Such a dilemma/problem/condition we often run into in our life, but the basic question is how to cope with it/but all we need to do is how to approach it.
28) This case has aroused echoes throughout the country, with more and mo r e people following its lead, but ideas about it vary widely/is there anything serious it has reflected?
29) With/For different people/things, however, sth. is open to different interpretations/tastes/connotations.
30) Sth. may be/bear/convey many meanings/values/hints to many/different people/things, but, in all senses/the broadest sense/a real sense, it is/means...A
31) To some people's mind/From some people's point of view/In the eye(s) o f some people, the matter in question is/seems/should be/means...But to others' mind/from others' point of view/in others' eyes, it is just/quite the other way around/contrary/opposite(或the opposite/reverse is the case/true.)
32) Whether the definition/interpretation of sth. is constant or mutable, however, depends on what backgrounds it is in. A
33) In view of the above-mentioned negative factors/disadvantage(s)/defects in A, people's second thought is to...
34) To counter/offset/counteract/cancel undesirable/side/ill effects/influence/results of A, B is put forward/proposed/advanced as another better course/ solution to...
35) In their efforts to battle against dark side/incongruous elements that… has brought along with, however, people come up with another approach/solution /course to...namely...
36) In contrast with the drawbacks/demerits/flaws of A, B can serve as a better step/move/advance in the right direction/to ward the solution for the problem of...
37) So when it comes to an effective remedy for/a good counter-balance to the problems/limits/faults/weaknesses in A, people naturally think of B.
38) But it has also brought along with it the negative effect/disadvantage /weakness that...
39) However, it is not without limits/problems/faults/defects, for example, ...
40) Like anything else, it also has its own dark side, as evidenced in...
41) For/Despite/In spite of the advantages/benefits/positive effects A has, it has suffered from/posed some disadvantages/harm/negative effects.
42) To attain this goal, however, we still have much work to do/many obstacles to remove.
43) Indeed, A is superior to/enjoys a distinct advantage over B in...,but it pales/proves inferior beside B/as compared with B in many aspects. (In the first place...In the second...In the third...) A
1) Only in this way/Only when.../Only through...will/can we...
或：It is only if/when...that we will...
2) As/So long as...we will be able to.../the problem is bound to...
3) For any place that.../For anyone who...there is every/no reason/chance to...
4) In short/brief/one word/sum, once we are on the way to..., the chance of achieving/making it will increase/grow greater/come to our advantage. A
5) The quotations/remarks from sb.(或The popular saying/maxim/proverb) “...” may be a better/sure cure/remedy for ...(或...sound/practical/sensible/well-weighted advice on how to...)
6) And worst of all/best of all, it has/will/would effect(ed) the most unfavorable/favorable change in...
7) As another severe shock (genuine comfort) to the people/society/As the most destructive/pushing effect on...(our life), it has permeated among the people/through our social soil/throughout the whole country(或has melted/penetrated into/been rooted in (the) Chinese soil (in the people's minds).A
8) As a(n) sensational/unexpected result of..., more and more people have come/got/begun to..A
9) To one's greatest astonishment/delight, sth. has affected...to the point of...
10) The most obvious/direct result/consequence it produces/brings about is...
11) With a constant/steady improvement in ...(或With the gradual worsening of...) sth. will...
12) In (the) course of time/In a long run (the long term), sth. is more likely/believed/bound/sure to...
13) In spite of the fact that...(或Although...), sth. will (not)...in our /one's assiduous/conscious/consistent efforts. A
14) In a word, there is every/little chance/probability/possibility that. ..in time to come. A
15) Anything (anyone) that (who)...will have to...
1) Sth. is like/as...as/similar to/the same as/compared to/as if (though) ...
2) Sth. is/refers to/is nothing but...
3) Sth. is thought of/defined/valued/cherished/seen/esteemed as...
4) A does sth. just as B does sth. else.
5) Sth. means/signifies/stands for/is a symbol(matter/sign/token)of...
1) but, but on the contrary, but on the other hand, but then;
2) by contrast, in contrast, in contrast with/to, as a contrast to, as opposed to;
3)by contraries, on the contrary, to the contrary, contrary to (A), opposite to, in opposition to;
4) whereas, while, while on the other hand, while on the whole, yet, however;
5) (as) compared with/to, by comparison, in comparison with, by comparison to.
6) First..., Next..., Last...;
7) In the first/early/initial/infant period/stage/phase(或In its infancy) ..., In the second/middle/adult/ripe period/stage/phase..., In the third/last/closing/later/concluding period...;
8) One step (way/course/approach/secret/trick)..., Another step..., Still another step...;
9) The first measure/step/move..., Next to it comes..., And the last/final/the most important measure...;
10) The direct experience/lesson/factor/way(或One lesson)...The indirect experience/lesson/factor/way(或The other lesson)...
I haven’t heard from you for ages. How are you doing?
I haven’t seen you for such a long time. How are you getting along with your work?
I want to congratulate you with all my heart.
I warmly congratulate you on what you’ve achieved.
I am most grateful to you for your help.
I want to thank you heartily for what you have done.
I wonder if you could tell me what to do.
I’d be most grateful if I could have your full support.
Please could you let me know something about it.
Is there any chance of your coming to have dinner with us at our home?
We are wondering if you could come to have dinner with us at our home.
I’m delighted to accept your invitation.
Thanks for your invitation. I’m certainly looking forward to joining you.
I’m sincerely sorry that we can’t join your dinner party.
I regret to say “no” to your invitation.
Thank you for your invitation but unfortunately…
I do apologize for having kept you waiting.
I’m awfully sorry for giving you so much trouble.
I’m more than sorry to hear of your illness.
I can’t tell you how sad I felt when I heard of…
It was a great shock to hear…
I just can’t tell you how saddened I am…
I’m most grieved to learn of…
I am happy to hear that…
Thank you for answering my letter so quickly.
With my best wishes …
Best wishes to you …
Please remember me to …
I do hope …
Ⅵ.Writing (15 point)
A) Title: WHERE TO LIVE--IN THE CITY OR THE COUNTRY?
B) Time limit: 40 minutes
C) Word limit: 120 - 150 words (not including the given opening sentence)
D) Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should start with the given opening sentence.
E) Your composition must be written clearly in the ANSWER SHEET.
1. Conveniences of the city
2. Attractions of the country
3. Disadvantages of both
4. My preference
Ⅵ:Writing (15 points)
A) Title: FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN PARENT AND CHILD
B) Time limit: 40 minutes
C) Word limit: 120 - 150 words (not includtng the given opening sentence)
D) Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should start with the given opening sentence.
E) Your composition must be written clearly in the ANISWER SHEET.
1 . Present situation: Lack of communication between parent and child
2 . Possible reasons:
1 ) Different likes and dislikes
2 ) Misunderstanding
l) For parents
2) For children
Ⅵ .Writing ( 15 points)
A. Title: ADVERTISEMENT ON TV
B. Time limit:40 minutes
C. Word limit: 120 - 150 words (not including the given opening sentence)
D. Your composition should be based at the OUTLINE below and should start with the given
opening sentence: "Today more and more advertisement are seen on the TV screen. "
E. Your composition must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET.
l. Present state
3 .My comments
Part V Writing (15 points)
A. Title: ON MAKING FRIENDS
B. TIME LIMIT : 40 minutes
C. Word limit : 120 - 150 words ( not including the given opening sentence)
D . Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should start with the
given opening sentence : "As a human being , one can hardly do without a friend . "
E . Your composition must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET .
l. The need for friends
2 True friendship
3. My principle in making friends
Part Ⅴ Writing (15 points)
A. Title: THE "PROJECT HOPE"
B. Time limit : 40 minutes
C. Word limit : 120 - 150 words (not including the given opening sentence)
D. Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should start with the given opening sentence : "Education plays a very important role in the modernization of our country " .
E. Your composition must be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.
1. Present situation
2. Necessity of the project
3. My suggestion
Part V Writing (15 points)
A. Title : GOOD HEALTH
B. Time limit :40 minutes
C. Word limit : 120-150 words ( not including the given opening sentence)
D. Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should start with the
given opening sentence : "The desire for good health is universal. "
E. Your composition should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.
1. Importance of good health
2. Ways to keep fit
3. My own practices
Part V Writing (15 points)
A. Study the following set of pictures carefully and write an essay in no less than 120.
B. Your essay must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET.
C. Your essay should cover all the information provided and meet the requirements below:
1. Interpret the following pictures.
2. Predict the tendency of tobacco consumption and give your reason.
Part V Writing (15 points)
A. Study the following cartoon carefully and write an essay in no less than 150words.
B. Your essay must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET II.
C. Your essay should meet the requirements below:
1. Write out the messages conveyed by the cartoon.
2. Give your comments
Part V Writing (15 points)
A. Study the following graphs carefully and write an essay in at least 150 words.
B. Your essay must be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET Ⅱ.
C. Your essay should cover these three points:
1. effect of the country's growing human population on its wildlife
2 .possible reason for the effect
3. your suggestion for wildlife protection
A. Study the following two pictures carefully and write and essay of at least 150 words.
B. Your essay should meet the requirements below:
1.Describe the pictures.
2.Deduce the purpose of the drawer of the pictures.
Part V Writing (20 points)
Among all the worthy feelings of mankind, love is probably the noblest, but everyone has his/her own understanding of it. There has been a discussion recently on the issue in a newspaper. Write an essay to the newspaper to
1) show your understanding of the symbolic meaning of the picture below,
2) give a specific example, and
3) give your suggestion as to the best way to show love.
Part V Writing (20 points)
Study the following picture carefully and write an essay entitled "Cultures
-National and International".
In the essay you should
1) describe the picture and interpret its meaning, and
2) give your comment on the phenomenon.
You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
An American girl in traditional Chinese costume（服装）
Part IV Writing (20 points)
Directions: 1) describe the set of drawings, Interpret its meaning, and
2) point out its implications in our life.
Part IV Writing (20 points)
1) describe the drawing.
2) interpret its meaning, and.
3) support your view with examples.
You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(20 points)
Two months ago you got a job as an editor for the magazine Designs & Fashions. But now you find that the work is not what you expected. You decide to quit. Write a letter to your boss, Mr. Wang, telling him your decision, stating your reason(s), and making an apology.
Write your letter with no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on ANWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter; use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should first describe the drawing, then interpret its meaning, and give your comment on it.
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
Section III writing
You want to contribute to Project Hope by offering financial aid to a child in a remote area, write a letter to the department concerned, asking them to help find a candidate. You should specify what kind of child you want to help and how you will carry out you plan. Write your letter in no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET2
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter; use “Li Ming” instead.
Do not write the address. (10 points)
52 Directions: study the following photos carefully and write an essay in which you should:
1) describe the photos briefly
2) interpret the social phenomenon reflected by them ,and
3) give you point of view
You should write 160-200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET2(20 points)
1. Cultures-National and International (18分)
This is a very interesting picture of a lovely American girl dressed in traditional Chinese costume with a sweet smile on her face. She wears a pearl necklace, colorful ribbon, earrings, and other decorating things that are characteristic of the clothes of a Chinese minority nationality. It is obvious that as a result of our open-door policy, more and more foreigners visit China and become interested in our national culture, which is making it go international.
There is no reason to make a fuss about this phenomenon. With the rapid development of technology and economy, the world is becoming smaller and smaller, and international cultural exchanges have become more and more frequent, which is inevitably improving our mutual understanding and friendship with other countries.
As Chinese citizens, we should respect our own national culture and learn useful things from the cultures of different nations, which will enable us to make great progress in many ways. I believe a happy and bright future is awaiting us if we make every effort to promote cultural development both nationally and internationally.
2. Cultures-National and International (13分)
As is shown in this picture, we can see clearly that a charming American girl who is in traditional Chinese costume is smiling to us. The purpose of this picture is that with the development of globalization, great changes have taken place in the world, and one nation’s culture has been accepted by the people from another culture.
Why does this phenomenon appear? I think there are several reasons as follows. First, with policy of opening the door to the outside world being well implemented in China, a large number of people from other countries like to visit China and become interested in traditional Chinese culture. Second, due to the easy and fast communications, the distance between various nations has been shortened, and people can get in touch with each other easily. Therefore, cultures from various nations can be exchanged and different cultures can merge together quickly.
In my opinion, people from different countries should learn and share different cultures. Each culture has its own advantages which might be beneficial to another culture. Besides, there is a trend that globalization is going to be accepted in the whole world. Therefore national cultures should gradually become international.
3.Cultures National and International (10分)
As seen from the above picture, an American girl in traditional Chinese costume is smiling to us with friendly looking. There are a lot of bright and beautiful accessories on her body. She dresses in Chinese costume, which is a symbol on behalf of the minority people in our country. From the picture we can draw a conclusion that cultures are national and international, and no limit between different countries. Even if growing up in various countries, we have still the same interests in cultures, not only in America, but also other countries.
In my view, it is no exaggeration to say that cultures are the most important factor, which can make the mankind progress and benefit a great deal from the communication in cultures, other than economic development. I am of the opinion that, in reaction to the phenomenon of cultures tending to be national and international, China should hold the key to success in the 21St century both in economy and cultures. We are required by the world people to open our cultures. Only in this situation can China act in cultures as an important role in the world stage. Of course, faced with the entry in foreign cultures, we must take steps to keep up the alertness against bad minds. My argument to the point is that we can’t throw the baby away with the bath water.
4. Cultures-National and International (8分)
From this picture we can see an American girl who was wearing a Chinese costume. This girl may be a foreign student or a traveller. She seems to like this costume very much. This picture shows a common phenomenon in China even in the whole world. The phenomenon is that the culture becomes international. The phenomenon is not only in China but also in many other countries. Many people begin to go to many different countries and learn different national cultures.
As far as I am concerned, I think this phenomenon is good to us. Firstly, we can earn some good cultures from other countries, and also can make our good culture confront the world. The international trend of culture can promote our cultures proceed. Secondly. the cultures become international, which can make more people know our country’. So many people will come to our country to have a jurnal. That can rise our travel economy income. Finally, if the culture becomes international it an contact the people of whole world. That will make the world better.
In a word, the phenomenon of the culture-international can benefit to us. That is a good phenomenon.
5. Cultures-National and International (5分)
From the picture, we can see that a beautiful American girl is in traditional Chinese costume is smiling, as if she was asking us “Am I like Chinese” and speaking I wish Chinese people happy like me.” Which shows that with the wide pace of globalization, cultures differences are shrinking.
In the past, we are stranged to see a person in other countries’ costume while now we are very familiar with this. The result is brought up by the shrinkage of cultures differences between national and international. With the development of economy, people in all over the world interact deeply. So cultures differences is also shrinking slowly, which attributes to improve the friendship of world people, which helps build a peaceful and stable international environment.
In my opinion, I agree with the interaction of cultures --- national and international, I wish I could see many foreign people in traditional Chinese costume.
According to the new school of scientists, technology is an overlooked force in expanding the horizons of scientific knowledge. 71) Science moves forward, they say, not so much through the insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things like improved techniques and tools. 72) "In short", a leader of the new school contends, "the scientific revolution, as we call it, was largely the improvement and invention and use of a series of instruments that expanded the reach of science in innumerable directions." 73) Over the years, tools and technology themselves as a source of fundamental innovation have largely been ignored by historians and philosophers of science. The modern school that hails technology argues that such masters as Galileo, Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, and inventors such as Edison attached great importance to. and derived great benefit from, craft information and technological devices of different kinds that were usable in scientific experiments. The centerpiece of the argument of a technology-yes, genius-no advocate was an analysis of Galileo's role at the start of the scientific revolution. The wisdom of the day was derived from Ptolemy, an astronomer of the second century, whose elaborate system of the sky put Earth at the center of all heavenly motions. 74) Galileo's greatest glory was that in 1609 he was the first person to turn the newly invented telescope on the heavens to prove that the planets revolve around the sun rather than around the Earth. But the real hero of the story, according to the new school of scientists, was the long evolution in the improvement of machinery for making eyeglasses.
Federal policy is necessarily involved in the technology vs. genius dispute. 75) Whether the Government should increase the financing of pure science at the expense of technology or vice versa often depends on the issue of which is seen as the driving force.
The standardized educational or psychological tests that are widely used to aid in selecting, classifying, assigning, or promoting students, employees, and military personnel have been the target of recent attacks in books, magazines, the daily press, and even in congress. 71) The target is wrong, for in attacking the tests, critics divert attention from the fault that lies with ill-informed or incompetent users. The tests themselves are merely tools, with characteristics that can be measured with reasonable precision under specified conditions. Whether the results will be valuable, meaningless, or even misleading depends partly upon the tool itself but largely upon the user.
All informed predictions of future performance are based upon some knowledge of relevant past performance: school grades research productive, sales records, or whatever is appropriate. 72) How well the predictions will be validated by later performance depends upon the amount, reliability, and appropriateness of the information used and on the skill and wisdom with which it is interpreted. Anyone who keeps careful score knows that the information available is always incomplete and that the predictions are always subject to error.
Standardized tests should be considered in this context. They provide a quick, objective method of getting some kids of information about what a person learned, the skills he has developed, or the kinds of person he is. The information so obtained has, qualitatively, the same advantages and shortcomings as other kinds of information. 73) Whether to use tests, other kinds of information, or both in a particular situation depends, therefore, upon the evidence from experience concerning comparative validity and upon such factors as cost and availability.
74) In general, the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted can not be well defined. Properly used, they provide a rapid means of getting comparable information about many people. Sometimes they identify students whose high potential has not been previously recognized, but there are many things, they do not do. 75) For example, they do not compensate for gross social inequality, and thus do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been had he grown up under more favorable circumstances.
The differences in relative growth of various areas of scientific research have several causes. 71) Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating. Some, however, are less reasonable processes of different growth in which preconceptions of the form scientific theory ought to take, by persons in authority, act to alter the growth pattern of different areas. This is a new problem probably not yet unavoidable; but it is a frightening trend. 72) This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail. It can be predicted, however, that from time to time questions will arise which will require specific scientific answers. It is therefore generally valuable to treat the scientific establishment as a resource or machine to be kept in functional order. 73) This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future.
This kind of support, like all government support, requires decisions about the appropriate recipients of funds. Decisions based on utility as opposed to lack of utility are straightforward. But a decision among projects none of which has immediate utility is more difficult. The goal of the supporting agencies is the praisable one of supporting "good" as opposed to "bad" science, but a valid determination is difficult to make. Generally, the idea of good science tends to become confused with the capacity of the field in question to generate an elegant theory. 74) However, the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world's more fascinating and delightful aspects. 75) New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to newstandards of elegance.
Do animals have rights? This is how the question is usually put. It sounds like a useful, ground-clearing way to start. 71) Actually, it isn't, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have.
On one view of rights, to be sure, it necessarily follows that animals have none. 72) Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements. Therefore, animals cannot have rights. The idea of punishing a tiger that kills somebody is absurd; for exactly the same reason, so is the idea that tigers have rights. However, this is only one account, and by no means an uncontested one. It denies rights not only to animals but also to some people —— for instance, to infants, the mentally incapable and future generations. In addition, it is unclear what force a contract can have for people who never consented to it: how do you reply to somebody who says "I don't like this contract"?
The point is this: without agreement on the rights of people, arguing about the rights of animals is fruitless. 73) It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset; it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all.
This is a false choice. Better to start with another, more fundamental, question: is the way we treat animals a moral issue at all?
Many deny it 74) Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice. Any regard for the suffering of animals is seen as a mistake —— a sentimental displacement of feeling that should properly be directed to other humans.
This view, which holds that torturing a monkey is morally equivalent to chopping wood, may seem bravely "logical". In fact it is simply shallow: the confused centre is right to reject it. The most elementary form of moral reasoning —— the ethical equivalent of learning to crawl —— is to weigh others' interests against one's own. This in turn requires sympathy and imagination: without which there is no capacity for moral thought. To see an animal in pain is enough, for most, to engage sympathy. 75) When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind's instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.
They were, by far, the largest and most distant objects that scientists had ever detected: a strip of enormous cosmic clouds some 15 billion light-years from earth. 71) But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past, for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15 billion years ago. That was just about the moment that the universe was born. What the researchers found was at once both amazing and expected; the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cosmic Background Explorer satellite — Cobe — had discovered landmark evidence that the universe did in fact begin with the primeval explosion that has become known as the Big Bang (the theory that the universe originated in an explosion from a single mass of energy.)
72) The existence of the giant clouds was virtually required for the Big Bang, first put forward in the 1920s, to maintain its reign as the dominant explanation of the cosmos. According to the theory, the universe burst into being as a submicroscopic, unimaginable dense knot of pure energy that flew outward in all directions, emitting radiation as it went, condensing into particles and then into atoms of gas. Over billions of years, the gas was compressed by gravity into galaxies, stars, plants and eventully, even humans.
Cobe is designed to see just the biggest structures, but astronomers would like to see much smaller hot spots as well, the seeds of local objects like clusters and superclusters of galaxies. They shouldn't have long to wait. 73) Astrophysicists working with ground-based detectors at the South Pole and balloon-borne instruments are closing in on such structures, and may report their findings soon.
74) If the small hot spots look as expected, that will be a triumph for yet another scientific idea, a refinement of the Big Bang called the inflationary universe theory.
Inflation says that very early on, the universe expanded in size by more than a trillion trillion trillion trillionfold in much less than a second, propelled by a sort of antigravity. 75) Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics, and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.
71) While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians, modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past. Caught in the web of its own time and place, each generation of historians determines anew what is significant for it in the past. In this search the evidence found is always incomplete and scattered; it is also frequently partial or partisan. The irony of the historian's craft is that its practitioners always know that their efforts are but contributions to an unending process.
72) Interest in historical methods has arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves. While history once revered its affinity to literature and philosophy, the emerging social sciences seemed to afford greater opportunities for asking new questions and providing rewarding approaches to an understanding of the past. Social science methodologies had to be adapted to a discipline governed by the primacy of historical sources rather than the imperatives of the contemporary world. 73) During this transfer, traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study.
Methodolgy is a term that remains inherently ambiguous in the historical profession. 74) There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry. Historians, especially those so blinded by their research interests that they have been accused of "tunnel method," frequently fall victim to the "technicist fallacy." Also common in the natural sciences, the technicist fallacy mistakenly identifies the discipline as a whole with certain parts of its technical implementation. 75) It applies equally to traditional historians who view history as only the external and internal criticism of sources, and to social science historians who equate their activity with specific techniques.
Governments throughout the world act on the assumption that the welfare of their people depends largely on the economic strength and wealth of the community. 71) Under modern conditions, this requires varying measures of centralized control and hence the help of specialized scientists such as economists and operational research experts. 72) Furthermore, it is obvious that the strength of country's economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry, and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all kinds. It also means that governments are increasingly compelled to interfere in these sectors in order to step up production and ensure that it is utilized to the best advantage. For example, they may encourage research in various ways, including the setting up of their own research centers; they may alter the structure of education, or interfere in order to reduce the wastage of natural resources or tap resources hitherto unexploited; or they may cooperate directly in the growing number of international projects related to science, economics and industry. In any case, all such interventions are heavily dependent on scientific advice and also scientific and technological manpower of all kinds.
73) Owing to the remarkable development in mass-communications, people everywhere are feeling new wants and are being exposed to new customs and ideas, while governments are often forced to introduce still further innovations for the reasons given above. At the same time, the normal rate of social change throughout the world is taking place at a vastly accelerated speed compared with the past, For example, 74) in the early industrialized countries of Europe the process of industrialization — with all the far-reaching changes in social patterns that followed
— was spread over nearly a century, whereas nowadays a developing nation may undergo the same process in a decade or so. All this has the effect of building up unusual pressures and tensions within the community and consequently presents serious problems for the governments concerned. 75) Additional social tresses may also occur because of the population explosion or problems arising from mass migration movements — themselves made relatively easy nowadays by modern means of transport. As a result of all these factors, governments are becoming increasingly dependent on biologists and social scientists for planning the appropriate programs and putting them into effect.
In less than 30 years' time the Star Trek holodeck will be a reality. Direct links between the brain's nervous system and a computer will also create full sensory virtual environments, allowing virtual vacations like those in the film Total Recall.
71) There will be television chat shows hosted by robots, and cars with pollution monitors that will disable them when they offend. 72) Children will play with dolls equipped with personality chips, computers with in-built personalities will be regarded as workmates rather than tools, relaxation will be in front of smell-television, and digital age will have arrived.
According to BT's futurologist, Ian Pearson, these are among the developments scheduled for the first few decades of the new millennium (a period of 1,000 years), when supercomputers will dramatically accelerate progress in all areas of life.
73) Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place.
Some of the biggest developments will be in medicine, including an extended life expectancy and dozens of artificial organs coming into use between now and 2040.
Pearson also predicts a breakthrough in computer-human links. "By linking directly to our nervous system, computer could pick up what we feel and, hopefully, simulate feeling too so that we can start to develop full sensory environments, rather like the holidays in Total Recall or the Star Trek holodeck," he says. 74) But that, Pearson points out, is only the start of man-machine integration: "It will be the beginning of the long process of integration that will ultimately lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century."
Through his research, Pearson is able to put dates to most of the breakthroughs that can be predicted. However, there are still no forecasts for when faster-than-light travel will be available, or when human cloning will be perfected, or when time travel will be possible. But he does expect social problems as a result of technological advances. A boom in neighborhood surveillance cameras will, for example, cause problems in 2010, while the arrival of synthetic lifelike robots will mean people may not be able to distinguish between their human friends and the droids. 75) And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder —— kitchen rage.
Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, and they cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone. What is needed is a technology of behavior, but we have been slow to develop the science from which such a technology might be drawn. 61) One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, traits of character, human nature, and so on.. Physics and biology once followed similar practices and advanced only when they discarded them. 62) The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find. The environment is obviously important, but its role has remained obscure. It does not push or pull, it selects, and this function is difficult to discover and analyze. 63) The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recongnized and studied. As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood, however, effects once assigned to states of mind, feelings, and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions, and a technology of behavior may therefore become available. It will not solve our problems, however, until it replaces traditional prescientific views, and these are strongly entrenched. Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty. 64) They are the possessions of the autonomous (self-governing) man of traditional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements. A scientific analysis shifts both the responsibility and the achievement to the environment. It also raises questions concerning "values". Who use a technology and to what ends? 65) Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.
Human beings in all times and places think about their world and wonder at their place in it. Humans are thoughtful and creative, possessed of insatiable curiosity. (61) Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live, thus subjecting all other life forms to their own peculiar ideas and fancies. Therefore, it is important to study humans in all their richness and diversity in a calm and systematic manner, with the hope that the knowledge resulting from such studies can lead humans to a more harmonious way of living with themselves and with all other life forms on this planet Earth.
"Anthropology" derives from the Greek words anthropos "human" and logos "the study of." By its very name, anthropology encompasses the study of all humankind. Anthropology is one of social sciences. (62) Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned, orderly, systematic, and dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena.
Social science disciplines include geography, economics, political science, psychology, and sociology. Each of these social sciences has a subfield or specialization which lies particularly close to anthropology.
All the social sciences focus upon the study of humanity. Anthropology is a field-study oriented discipline which makes extensive use of the comparative method in analysis. (63) The emphasis on data gathered first-hand, combined with a cross-cultural perspective brought to the analysis of cultures past and present, makes this study a unique and distinctly important social science.
Anthropological analyses rest heavily upon the concept of culture. Sir Edward Tylor's formulation of the concept of culture was one of the great intellectual achievements of 19th century science. (64) Tylor defined culture as "... that complex whole which includes belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." This insight, so profound in its simplicity, opened up an entirely new way of perceiving and understanding human life. Implicit within Tylor's definition is the concept that culture is learned. shared, and patterned behavior.
(65) Thus, the anthropological concept of "culture," like the concept of "set" in mathematics,is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding.
The relation of language and mind has interested philosophers for many centuries. (61) The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe longbefore people realized how diverse languages could be.
Only recently did linguists begin the serious study of languages that were very different from their own. Two anthropologist-linguists, Franz Boas Edward Sapir, were pioneers in describing many native languages of North and South America during the first half of the twentieth century. (62) We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages. Other linguists in the earlier part of this century, however, who were less eager to deal with bizarre data from "exotic" language, were not always so grateful. (63) The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that some scholars even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating their data. Native American languages are indeed different, so much so in fact that Navajo could be used by the US military as a code during World War II to send secret messages.
Sapir's pupil, Benjamin Lee Whorf, continued the study of American Indian languages. (64) Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society. He reasoned that because the structure of habitual thought in a society. He reasoned that because it is easier to formulate certain concepts and not others in a given language, the speakers of that language think along one track and not along another. (65) Whorf came to believe in a sort of linguistic determinism which, in its strongest form, states that language imprisons the mind, and that the grammatical patterns in a language can produce far-reaching consequences for the culture of a society. Later, this idea became to be known as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, but this term is somewhat inappropriate. Although both Sapir and Whorf emphasized the diversity of languages, Sapir himself never explicitly supported thenotion of linguistic determinism.
It is not easy to talk about the role of the mass media in this overwhelmingly significant phase in European history. History and news become confused, and one's impressions tend to be a mixture of skepticism and optimism. (46)Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyed-and perhaps never before has it served to much to connect different peoples and nations as is the recent events in Europe .The Europe that is now forming cannot be anything other than its peoples, their cultures and national identities. With this in mind we can begin to analyze the European television scene. (47) In Europe, as elsewhere multi-media groups have been increasingly successful groups which bring together television, radio newspapers, magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another. One Italian example would be the Berlusconi group while abroad Maxwell and Murdoch come to mind.
Clearly, only the biggest and most flexible television companies are going to be able to compete complete in such a rich and hotly-contested market. (48) This alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in a fact underlined by statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks no less than 50% took a loss in 1989.
Moreover, the integration of the European community will oblige television companies to cooperate more closely in terms of both production and distribution.
(49) Creating a “European identity” that respects the different cultures and traditions which go to make up the connecting fabric of the Old continent is no easy task and demands a strategic choice - that of producing programs in Europe for Europe. This entails reducing our dependence on the North American market, whose programs relate to experiences and cultural traditions which are different from our own.
In order to achieve these objectives, we must concentrate more on co-productions, the exchange of news, documentary services and training. This also involves the agreements between European countries for the creation of a European bank will handle the finances necessary for production costs. (50) In dealing with a challenge on such a scale, it is no exaggeration to say “United we stand, divided we fall” -and if I had to choose a slogan it would be “Unity in our diversity.” A unity of objectives that nonetheless respect the varied peculiarities of each country.
Is it true that the American intellectual is rejected and considered of no account in his society? I am going to suggest that it is not true. Father Bruckbergen told part of the story when he observed that it is the intellectuals who have rejected American. But they have done more than that. They have grown dissatisfied with the role of intellectual. It is they, not American, who have become anti-intellectual.
First, the object of our study pleads for definition. What is an intellectual? (46) I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic(苏格拉底) way about moral problems. He explores such problem consciously, articulately, and frankly, first by asking factual questions, then by asking moral questions, finally by suggesting action which seems appropriate in the light of the factual and moral information which he has obtained. (47) His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a matter as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision.
This definition excludes many individuals usually referred to as intellectuals----the average scientist for one. (48) I have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems. Like other human beings, he encounters moral issues even in everyday performance of his routine duties--- he is not supposed to cook his experiments, manufacture evidence, or doctor his reports. (49) But his primary task is not to think about the moral code, which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business. During most of his walking life he will take his code for granted, as the businessman takes his ethics.
The definition also excludes the majority of factors, despite the fact that teaching has traditionally been the method whereby many intellectuals earn their living (50) They may teach very well, and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment. This description even fits the majority eminent scholars. “Being learned in some branch of human knowledge in one thing, living in public and industrious thoughts”, as Emersion would say, “is something else.”
way road path route street avenue
period time(s) epoch era age
clothing clothes dresses suits garment costume coat overcoat
cry weep sob snivel blubber whine bawl wail moan grown
good-looking beautiful handsome pretty lovely fair gorgeous
anger indignation rage fury
mistake fault error defect
picture painting drawing sketch diagram graph illustration draft plan chart
special especial particular peculiar
cancel abolish eliminate repeal exterminate
conditions situation environment circumstance(s) surrounding(s)
well-known famous distinguished renowned notorious（贬）
thing event fact subject matter business affair incident occurrence
quality characteristic character nature attribute peculiarity feature trait personality
increase enlarge magnify amplify expand extend
smile laugh grin chuckle giggle snicker simper smirk titter guffaw roar taunt mock jeer joke
work job profession occupation vocation position
mean show suggest implicit claim indicate imply denote suggest symbolize
get obtain gain seizure acquire attain procure
achievement accomplishment feat exploit
A blind man who leans against a wall imagines that it's the boundary of the world. 坐井观天。
Actions speak louder than words. 事实胜于雄辩。
Adversity is a good discipline. 苦难是磨练人的好机会。
Adversity successfully overcome is the highest glory. 成功地克服困难是最大的光荣。
A friend is never known till a man have need. 不到患难时，永远不能认识真正的朋友。
A good book is a light to the soul. 好书一本，照亮心灵。
A life without a friend is a life without a sun. 人生在世无朋友，犹如生活无太阳。
All time is no time when it is past. 光阴一去不复返。
A man can do no more than he can. 凡事只能量力而行。
An idle youth, a needy age. 少壮不努力，老大徒伤悲。
Be slow to promise and quick to perform. 不轻诺，诺必果。
By falling we learn to go safely. 吃一堑，长一智。
Care and diligence bring luck. 谨慎和勤奋，带来好运气。
Don't put off till tomorrow what should be done today. 今日事，今日毕。
Each man is the architect of his own fate. 命运掌握在自己手中。
Every man is the son of his own works. 种瓜得瓜，种豆得豆。
Every medal has its reverse. 事物都有它的反面。
Extremes are dangerous. 物极必反。
Feed by measure and defy physician. 饮食有节制，医生无用处。
From a little spark may burst a mighty flame. 星星之火可以燎原。
Good to begin well, better to end well. 善始好，善终更好。
Health and cheerfulness mutually beget each other. 健康愉快，相生相成。
Health is above wealth. 健康胜于财富。
Hope for the best, but prepare for the worst. 作最好的希望，作最坏的打算。
Idleness is the rust of the mind. 懒惰使脑子生锈。
Imagination is more important than knowledge. 想像力比知识更重要。
In prosperity think of adversity. 居安思危。
Jack of all trades and master of none. 什么都会，样样不精。
Justice has long arms. 天网恢恢，疏而不漏。
Keep good men company, and you shall be of the number. 近朱者赤。
Learning is wealth to the poor, an honour to the rich, an aid to the young, and a support and comfort to the aged. 学问是穷人的财富，是富人的荣誉，是青年的帮助，是老年的支持和安慰。
Learn to walk before you run. 循序渐进。
Life is compared to voyage. 人生好比是航海。
Living without an aim is like sailing without a compass. 生活没有目标，犹如航海没有罗盘。
Make all you can, save all you can, give all you can. 尽力而为，尽力节约，尽力施舍。
Money doesn't grow on trees. 钱不是从天上掉下来的。
Music washes away from the soul the dust of everyday life. 音乐可洗去灵魂中日常生活所沾染的污垢。
Nature, time, and patience are the three great physicians. 自然，时间和耐心，是三大伟大的医生。
No rose without a thorn. 玫瑰都有刺。
Nothing is really beautiful but truth. 只有真理才是真美。
Of two evils choose the least. 权衡两害，取其轻者。
On earth there is nothing great but man, in man there is nothing great but mind.
One cannot eat one's cake and have it. 事难两全其美。
One rotten apple spoils the whole barrel. 一只烂苹果烂一萝苹果。
Patience is bitter, but its fruit is sweet. 忍耐是苦痛的，但它的果实是甜蜜的。
Patience, time, and money overcome everything. 耐心，时间和金钱可以征服一切。
People do not lack strength; they lack will. 人们不缺力量，缺的是决心。
Practice makes perfect. 熟能生巧。
Real knowledge, like everything else of value, is not to be obtained easily, it must be worked for, studied for, thought for, and more than all, must be prayed for.
Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve. 应该做的决心做，决心做的务必做。
Science is organized knowledge. 科学是系统化的知识。
Self-distrust is the cause of most of our failure. 我们的失败多数是由于缺乏自信。
Self-reverence, self-knowledge, self-control, these three alone lead life to sovereign power.
Sincerity, a deep genuine, heart-felt sincerity, is a trait of true and noble manhood.
Some of the best lessons we ever learn from our mistakes and failures. The error of the past is the wisdom and success of the future.
Success belongs to the persevering. 坚持到底必获胜利。坚持就是胜利。
Success grows out of struggles to overcome difficulties. 成功来自于克服困难的斗争。
That teacher helps his pupils most who most helps them to help themselves.
The greatest friend of truth is time, her greatest enemy is prejudice, and her constant companion is humility.
The greatest pleasure of life is love. 爱是人生最大的乐趣。
The secret of success in life is for a man to be ready for his opportunity when it comes.
Thinking well is wise; planning well, wiser; doing well, wisest and best of all.
Time works wonders. 时间可以创造奇迹。
Time works great changes. 时间能产生巨大的变化。
To preserve a friend three things are required: to honour him present, praise him absent, and assist him in his necessities.
Waste of time is the most extravagant and costly of all expenses. 浪费时间是一切花费中最奢侈豪华的费用。
Without hope, the heart would break. 如无希望，心就破碎。
Woe to him that is alone. 孤独的人最苦恼。
Write it on your heart every day is the best day of the year. 要记住，每天是一年中最好的一天。
Yesterday will not be called again. 光阴一去不复返。
Youth is life's seed-time. 青年时代是人生的播种期。
Youth is the season of hope, enterprise, and energy, to a nation as well as an individual.
Youth means limitless possibilities. 年轻意味着无限希望。
In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41—45, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes, reptiles, birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some of these animals were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is, they have no descendants alive now. 41) _______________.
Very occasionally the rocks show impression of skin, so that, apart from color, we can build up a reasonably accurate picture of an animal that died millions of years ago. The kind of rock in which the remains are found tells us much about the nature of the original land, often of the plants that grew on it, and even of its climate.
42) ____________________. Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocks formed by water action, and most of these are of animals that lived in or near water. Thus it follows that there must be many kinds of mammals, birds, and insects of which we know nothing.
43) ____________________. There are also crab-like creatures, whose bodies were covered with a horny substance. The body segments each had two pairs of legs, one pair for walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming. The head was a kind of shield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands of lenses. They were usually an inch or two long but some were 2 feet.
44 ____________________. Of these, the ammonites are very interesting and important. They have a shell composed of many chambers, each representing a temporary home of the animal. As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber and sealed off the previous one. Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks on the Dorset Coast.
About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over and most of the groups died out. The mammals quickly developed, and we can trace the evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse. Many of the later mammals, though now extinct, were known to primitive man and were featured by him in cave paintings and on bone carvings.
[A] The shellfish have a long history in the rock and many different kinds are known.
[B] Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because their bones and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils. From them we can tell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate.
[C] The first animals with true backbones were the fishes, first known in the rocks of 375 million years ago. About 300 million years ago the amphibians, the animals able to live both on land and in water, appeared. They were giant, sometimes 8 feet long, and many of them lived in the swampy pools in which our coal seam, or layer, or formed. The amphibians gave rise to the reptiles and for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms of life on land, in the sea, and in the air.
[D] The best index fossils tend to be marine creatures. These animals evolved rapidly and spread over large areas of the world.
[E] The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all very simple kinds and lived in the sea. Later forms are more complex, and among these are the sea lilies, relations of the starfishes, which had long arms and were attached by a long stalk to the seabed, or to rocks.
[F] When an animal dies, the body, its bones, or shell, may often be carried away by streams into lakes or the sea and there get covered up by mud. If the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered with mud. More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell become embedded and preserved.
[G] Many factors can influence how fossils are preserved in rocks. Remains of an organism may be replaced by minerals, dissolved by an acidic solution to leave only their impression, or simply reduced to a more stable form.
Directions:In the following text, some sentences have removed. For Questions 41-45, choosethe most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into of the numbered blank thereare two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers onANSWER SHEET1. (10 points)
Canada's premiers (the leaders of provincial governments), if they have any breath left after complaining about Ottawa at their late July annual meeting, might spare a moment to do something, to reduce health-care costs.
They're all groaning about soaring health budgets, the fastest-growing component of which are pharmaceutical costs.
What to do? Both the Romanow commission and the Kirby committee on health care-to say nothing of reports from other experts recommended the creation of a national drug agency. Instead of each province having its own list of approved drugs , bureaucracy, procedures and limited bargaining power, all would pool resources ,work with Ottawa, and create a national institution.
But “national” doesn't have to mean that. “National” could mean interprovincial-provinces combining efforts to create one body.
Either way, one benefit of a “national” organization would be to negotiate better prices, if possible, with drug manufacturers. Instead of having one province-or a series of hospitals within a province-negotiate a price for a given drug on the provincial list, the national agency would negotiate on behalf of all provinces.
Rather than, say, Quebec, negotiating on behalf of seven million people, the national agency would negotiate on behalf 31 million people. Basic economics suggests the greater the potential consumers, the higher the likelihood of a better price.
A small step has been taken in the direction of a national agency with the creation of the Canadian Co-ordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment, funded by Ottawa and the provinces. Under it, a Common Drug Review recommends to provincial lists which new drugs should be included, predictably and regrettably Quebec refused to join.
A few premiers are suspicious of any federal-provincial deal-making. They (particularly Quebec and Alberta) just want Ottawa to fork over additional billions with few, if any, strings attached. That's one reason why the idea of a nationalist hasn't gone anywhere while drug costs keep rising fast.
Premiers love to quote Mr. Romanow's report selectively, especially the parts about more federal money perhaps they should read what he had to say a bout drugs.
“A national drug agency would provide governments more influence on pharmaceutical companies in order to constrain the ever-increasing cost of drugs.”
So when the premiers gather in Niagara Falls to assemble their usual complaint list, they should also get cracking about something in their jurisdiction that would help their budgets and patients.
A. Quebec's resistance to a national agency is provincialist ideology. One of the first advocates for a national list was a researcher at Laval University. Quebec's Drug Insurance Fund has seen its costs skyrocket with annual increases from 14.3 per cent to 26.8 per cent!
B. Or they could read Mr. Kirby's report:“the substantial buying power of such an agency would strengthen the public prescription-drug insurance plans to negotiate the lowest possible purchase prices from drug companies”
C. What does “national” mean? Roy Romanow and Senator Michael Kirby recommended a federal-provincial body much like the recently created National Health Council.
D. The problem is simple and stark: health-care costs have been, are, and will continue to increase faster than government revenues.
E. According to the Canadian Institute for Health Information. prescription drug costs have risen since 1997 at twice the rate of overall health-care spending. Part of the increase comes from drugs being used to replace other kinds of treatments part of it arises from new drugs costing more than older kinds. Part of it is higher prices.
F. So, if the provinces want to run the health-care show, they should prove they can run it, starting with an interprovincial health list that would end duplication, save administrative costs, prevent one province from being played off against another, and bargain for better drug prices.
G. Of course the pharmaceutical companies will scream. They like divided buyers, they can lobby better that way. They can use the threat of removing jobs from one province to another. They can hope that, if one province includes a drug on its, list the pressure will cause others to include it on theirs. They wouldn't like a national agency agency, but self-interest would lead them to deal with it.
On the north bank of the Ohio River sits Evansville, Ind., home of David Williams, 52, and of a riverboat casino where gambling games are played. During several years of gambling in that casino, Williams, a state auditor earning $35,000 a year, lost approximately $175,000. He had never gambled before the casino sent him a coupon for $20 worth of gambling.
He visited the casino, lost the $20 and left. On his second visit he lost $800. The casino issued to him, as a good customer, a Fun Card, which when used in the casino earns points for meals and drinks, and enables the casino to track the user's gambling activities. For Williams, these activities become what he calls electronic morphine. (41)______________. In 1997 he lost $21,000 to one slot machine in two days. In March 1997 he lost $72,186. He sometimes played two slot machines at a time, all night, until the boat locked at 5 a.m., then went back aboard when the casino opened at 9 a.m. Now he is suing the casino, charging that it should have refused his patronage because it knew he was addicted. It did know he had a problem.
In March 1998, a friend of Williams's got him involuntarily confined to a treatment center for addictions, and wrote to inform the casino of Williams's gamblers. The casino included a photo of Williams among those of banned gamblers, and wrote to him a” cease admissions” letter noting the medical/psychological nature of problem gambling behaviors, the letter said that before being readmitted to the patronizing the casino would pose no threat to his safety have to his safety or well-being. (42) ______________.
The Wall Street Journal reports that the casino has 20 signs warning: “Enjoy the fun ... and always bet with your head, not over it”. Every entrance ticket lists a toll-free number for counseling from the Indiana Department of Mental Health. Nevertheless, Williams's suit charges that the casino, knowing he was “helplessly addicted to gambling”, intentionally worked to ”love” him to “engage in conduct against his will” well. (43) ______________.
The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) says “pathological gambling” involves persistent, recurring and uncontrollable pursuit less of money than of taking risks in quest of a windfall, (44) ______________.Pushed by science, or what claims to be science, society is reclassifying what once were considered character flaws or moral failings as personality disorders akin to physical disabilities. (45) ______________.
Forty-four states have lotteries, 29 have casinos, and most of these states are to varying degrees dependent on --you might say --addicted to--revenues from wagering. And since the first Internet gambling site was created in 1995, competition for gamblers' dollars has become intense. The Oct. 28 issue of NEWSWEEK reported that 2 million gamblers patronize 1,800 virtual casinos every week. With $3.5 billion being lost on Internet wagers this year, gambling has passed pornography as the Web's most profitable business.
(A). Although no such evidence was presented, the casino's marketing department continued to pepper him with mailings. And he entered the casino and used his Fun Card without being detected.
(B). It is unclear what luring was required, given his compulsive behavior. And in what sense was his will operative?
(C). By the time he had lost $5,000 he said to himself that if he could get back to even, he would quit. One night he won $5,500, but he did not quit.
(D). Gambling has been a common feature of American life forever, but for a long time it was broadly considered a sin, or a social disease. Now it is a social policy: the most important and aggressive promoter of gambling in America is government.
(E). David Williams’s suit should trouble this gambling nation. But don’t bet on it.
(F). It is worrisome that society is medicalizing more and more behavioral problems, often defining as addictions what earlier, sterner generations explained as weakness of will.
(G). The anonymous, lonely, undistracted nature of online gambling is especially conductive to compulsive behavior. But even if the government knew how to move against Internet gambling, what would be its grounds for doing so?
One of the most important steps toward increasing the productivity of the poor is to make sure that they have access to educational opportunities that are at least as good as those available to the rest of the society. In fact we may very well want more educational attention directed toward them than to the children of the well-to-do, in order to overcome the social and psychological handicaps that may confront them. 1) _______________________________.
Educational programs will not produce instant results. Neither will they increase the productivity and incomes of all the poor. Nevertheless, they constitute one of the great equalizers in our society.
2) _______________________________. Unemployed persons or persons in relatively low-wage occupations and areas often do not know where better opportunities exist. Frequently, those in the areas where unemployment is low and wages are high are reluctant to publish this information for fear that an influx of labor will "spoil" what they have.
3) _______________________________. Examples include blacks breaking into positions where they may be supervising whites, and practicing professions--medicine, dentistry, accounting, law, etc.-- in which their clients may be white. Occupational and professional mobility of groups that have traditionally been discriminated against was greatly enhanced by opening previously segregated schools at all levels to students of all groups.
4) _______________________________. Some people are too old and some are too young to take advantage of them. Some are not healthy enough in either mind or body. Some may be victims of structural problems in the society. Any comprehensive or reasonably complete antipoverty program must include direct income transfers to those whose productivities cannot be increased sufficiently to enable them to earn minimum acceptable income levels.
A very large part of present government income transfers is toward the aged through Social Security payments and Medicare. What could be more humane than taking care of the old? The fact is that many of the elderly people in our society are perfectly capable of supporting themselves, including the costs of their medical care. But Social Security payments and Medicare payments are made to them anyway, whether they are poor or not.
[A] A great problem with using government transfers of income to alleviate poverty is that they are used to subsidize the nonpoor as well as the poor. This occurs largely because special interest groups manage to worm their way into the ranks of those eligible for subsidization, and politicians have a way of catering to the voting powers of special interest groups.
[B] As a consequence of such dissatisfaction, considerable support has developed for direct income transfers in the form of negative income taxes
[C] Even under the best of circumstances, policies designed to increase the incomes of the poor cannot eliminate all poverty.
[D] In addition, vocational education and retraining programs may be useful in increasing the productivity of the adult poor.
[E] There are additional ways of increasing the productivity of the poor. Hopefully, anti discrimination measures contribute toward this end, enabling qualified persons to break into professions or occupations that were closed to them by discriminatory practices.
[F] Subsidies to farmers are much more generous to skilled, highly productive, and high income farmers than they are to the farming poor. But both veterans and farmers are highly visible, politically powerful groups.
[G] Another important measure in increasing the productivity of the poor is the improvement of labor market information.
Patents, trademarks, and copyrights all impart monopoly rights on inventions, business identities, and intellectual property. 1) _______________________________.
Inventions like the telephone and the electric light have revolutionized our lives and have brought riches to their inventors. Today immense expenditures are being poured into genetic research, research on faster microchips that can access larger computer memories, and research into more attractive consumer products. Both public and private research and development expenditures in 1985 were over $100 billion, and over a million scientists and engineers were employed.
2) _______________________________. Hundreds of countries were checked to ensure that the name was not previously trademarked and would not connote anything offensive to consumers. Then hundreds of millions of dollars were spent helping the public remember the new trademark. Firms like Gucci, Cartier, and Chanel invest heavily in their trade names. Chanel, for example, spends over $1 million a year on trade-name security alone.
3) _______________________________. Software developers have formed an organization to fight unauthorized duplication, and record producers use ASCAP and BMI to pressure businesses to license music for commercial purposes. ASCAP and BMI send people into businesses to see if they play background music to entertain customers. If, for example, a radio is playing, they will ask the owner to purchase a license to play the radio in the store. If the owner refuses, the agent for ASCAP or BMI will immediately retain an attorney and file a lawsuit. The law is clear--playing music for commercial purposes without a license is unlawful unless you own the copyright to the music itself. ASCAP and BMI then prorate their proceeds to the copyright homers of the music being played.
5) _______________________________. However, businesses are hesitant to admit that their product line has been reproduced. Many fear that publicity may encourage further copying or that their customers will become wary of their brand names. In any event, counterfeiting substantially weakens the monopoly power associated with many patents, trademarks, and copyrights.
[A] Trademarks are another device conveying monopoly power to firms. Several million dollars were spent developing the EXXON name.
[B] Copyrights protect intellectual property in a number of areas including books, records, video tapes, and computer software, as well as product designs.
[C] Today, counterfeit goods are threatening all these forms of monopoly power. Numerous products are counterfeited. The imitations are typically of inferior quality. Replicas of aircraft parts and bogus "high-strength" fasteners are showing up in civilian and military aircraft. The U.S. Department of Commerce estimates that over three-quarters of a million jobs are lost to imported product "knock-offs", the industry's term for counterfeited goods.
[D] Interestingly, secrecy is the order of the day on both sides of this problem. For those counterfeiting products, the reason is clear.
[E] Obtaining these rights is a costly endeavor.
[F] Licensing and bonding restrictions, ostensibly used to protect consumers from shoddy or fraudulent practices, may really be disguised barriers to entry.
[G] Other important legal barriers to entry included patents and copyrights. Patent and copyright monopolies may be justifiable as incentives for research and development leading to technological advances or the enrichment of our culture.
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45. you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1 (10 points)
[A] “I just don't know how to motivate them to do a better job. We're in a budget crunch and I have absolutely no financial rewards at my disposal. In fact, we’ll probably have to lay some people off in the near future. It's hard for me to make the job interesting and challenging because it isn't－ it's boring, routine paperwork, and there isn't much you can do about it.
[B] “Finally, I can't say to them that their promotions will hinge an the excellence of their paperwork. First of all, they know it's not true. if their performance is adequate, most are more likely to get promoted just by staying on the fore a certain number of years than for some specific outstanding act. Second, they were trained to do the job they do out in the streets, not to fill out forms. All through their career it is the arrests and interventions that get noticed.
[C] "I've got real problem with my officers. They come on the force as young, inexperienced men, and we send them out on the street, either in ears or on a heat. They seem to like the contact they have with the public, the action involved in crime prevention, and the apprehension of criminals. They also like helping people nut at fires, accidents, and other emergencies.
[D]"Some people have suggested a number of things like using conviction records as a performance criterion. However, we know that's not fair-too many other things are involved. Bad paperwork increases the chance that you lose in court, but good paperwork doesn't necessarily mean you'll win. We tried setting up team competitions based on the excellence of the reports, but the guys caught on to that pretty quickly. No one was getting any type of reward for winning the competition, and they figured why should they labor when there was no payoff.
[E] The problem occurs when they get back to the station. They hate to do the paperwork, and because they dislike it, the job is frequently put off or done inadequately .This lack of attention hurts us later on when we get to court. We need clear, factual reports. They must be highly detailed and unambiguous. As soon as one part of a report is shown to be inadequate or incorrect, the rest of the report is suspect. Poor reporting probably causes us to lose more cases than any other factor.
[F]“So I just don’t know what to do. I’ve been groping in the dark in a number of years. And I hope that this seminar will shed some light on this problems of mine and help me out in my future work..”
[G]A large metropolitan city government was putting on a number of seminars for administrators , managers and/or executives of various department throughout the city. At one of these sessions the topic to be discussed was motivation---how we can get public servants motivated to do a good job. The difficulty of a police captain became the central focus of the discussion.
G——41. ——42. ——43. —— 44. ——45. ——F
You are going to read a text about the tips on resume writing, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45). There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
The main purpose of a resume is to convince an employer to grant you an interview . There are two kinds . One in the familiar “tombstone” that lists where you went to school and where you’ve worked in chronological order. The other is what I call the “functional” resume——descriptive, fun to read , unique to you and much more likely to land you an interview.
It’s handy to have a “tombstone” for certain occasions. But prospective employers throw away most of those un-requested “tombstone” lists, preferring to interview the quick rather than the dead.
What follows are tips on writing a functional resume that will get read—a resume that makes you come alive and look interesting to employers.
(41) Put yourself first
In order to write a resume others will read with enthusiasm , you have to feel important about yourself.
(42) Sell what you can do ,not who you are :
Practice translating your personality traits . character, accomplishments and achievements into skill areas . There are at least five thousand skill areas in the world of work .
Toot your own born!
Many people clutch when asked to think about their abilities. Some think they have none at all! But everyone does, and one of yours may just be the ticket an employer would be glad to punch—if only you show it.
(43) Be specific , be concrete , and be brief!
Remember that “brevity is the best policy,”
(44) Turn bad news into good:
Everybody has bad disappointments in work.. If you habe to mention yours , look for the positive side.
(45) Never apologize:
If you’re returning to the work force after fifteen years as a parent , simply write a short paragraph(summary of background) in place of a chronology of experience . Don’t apologize for working at being a mother ; it’s the hardest job of all. If you have no special training or higher education, just don’t mention education.
The secret is to think about the self before you start writing about yourself .Take four or five hours off, nit necessarily consecutive , and simply write down every accomplishment in your life , on or off the job, that made you feel effective. Don’t worry at first about what it all means. Study the list and try to spot patterns . As you study your list , you will cone closer to the meaning: identifying your marketable skills. Once you discover patterns ,give names to your cluster of accomplishments(leadership skills ,budget management skills, child development skills etc.) Try to list at least three accomplishments under the same skills heading. Now start writing your resume as if you mattered . It may take four drafts or more ,and several weeks ,before you’re ready to show it to a stranger (friends are usually too kind) for a reaction . When you’re satisfied . send it to a printer; a printed resume is far superior to photocopies. It shows an employer that regard job hunting as serious work, work doing right.
Isn’t that the kind of person you’d want working for you?
[A] A woman who lost her job as a teacher’s aide due to a cutback in government funding wrote : “Principal of elementary school cited me as the only teacher’s aide she would rehire if government funds became available”
[B] One resume I received included the following : “Invited by my superior to straighten out our organization’s accounts receivable. Set up orderly repayment schedule , reconciled accounts weekly , and improved cash flow 100 per cent. Rewarded with raise and promotion.” Notice how this woman focuses on results , specifies how she accomplished them , and mention her reward—all in 34 words.
[C] For example , if you have a flair for saving , managing and investing money . you have money management skills.
[D] An acquaintance complained of being biased when losing an opportunity due to the statement “Ready to learn through not so well educated”
[E] One of my former colleagues, for example, wrote three resumes in three different styles in order to find out which was more preferred .The result is , of course, the one that highlights skills and education background.
[F] A woman once told me about a cash-flow crisis her employer had faced .She’d agreed to work without pay for three months until business improved .Her reward was her back pay plus a 20 percent bonus. I asked why that marvellous story wasn’t in her resume . She answered , “It wasn’t important.” What she was really saying of course was “I’m not important ”
You are going to read a list of heading and a text about plagiarism in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (4~5). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
[ A ] What to do as a student?
[ B ] Various definitions of plagiarism
[ C ] Ideas should always be sourced
[ D ] Ignorance can be forgiven
[ E ] Plagiarism is equivalent to theft
[ F ] The consequences of plagiarism
Scholars, writers and teachers in the modern academic community have strong feelings about acknowledging the use of another person's ideas. In the English-speaking world, the term plagiarism is used to label the practice of not giving credit for the source of one's ideas. Simply stated, plagiarism is “the wrongful appropriation or purloining, and publication as one’s own of the idea, or the expression of ideas of another.”
The penalties for plagiarism vary from situation to situation. In many universities, the punishment many range from failure in a particular course to expulsion from the university. In the literary world, where writes are protected from plagiarism by international copyright laws, the penalty may range from a small fine to imprisonment and ruined career. Protection of scholars and writers, through the copyright laws and through the social pressures of the academic and literary communities, is a relatively recent concept. Such social pressures and copyright laws requires writers to give scrupulous attention to documentation of their sources.
Students, as inexperienced scholars themselves, must avoid various types of plagiarism by being self-critical in their use of other scholar’s ideas and by giving appropriate credit for the source of borrowed ideas and words, otherwise dire consequences may occur. There are at least three classifications of plagiarism as it is revealed in students’ inexactness in identifying sources properly. They are plagiarism by accident, by ignorance, and by intention.
Plagiarism by accident, or oversight, sometimes is the result of the writer’s inability to decide or remember where the idea came from. He may have read it long ago, heard it in a lecture since forgotten, or acquired it second-hand or third-hand from discussions with colleagues. He may also have difficulty in deciding whether the idea is such common knowledge that no reference to the original source is needed. Although this type of plagiarism must be guarded against, it is the least serious and, if lessons learned, can be exempt from being severely punished.
Plagiarism through ignorance is simply a way of saying that inexperienced writers often do not know how or when to acknowledge their sources. The techniques for documentation note-taking, quoting, footnoting, listing bibliography – are easily learned and can prevent the writer from making unknowing mistakes or omissions in his references. Although “there is no copyright in news, or in ideas, only in the expression of them,” the writer cannot plead ignorance when his sources for ideas are challenged.
The most serious kind of academic thievery is plagiarism by intention. The writer, limited by his laziness and dullness, copies the thoughts and languages of others and claims them for his own. He not only steals, he tries to deceive the reader into believing the ideas are original. Such words as immoral, dishonest, offensive, and despicable are used to describe the practice of plagiarism by intention.
The opposite of plagiarism is acknowledgement. All mature and trustworthy writers make use of the ideas of others but they are careful to acknowledge their indebtedness to their sources. Students, as developing scholars, writers, teachers, and professional leaders, should recognize and assume the responsibility to document all sources from which language and thoughts are borrowed. Other members of the profession will not only respect the scholarship, they will admire the humility and honesty.
并列关系 and, and also, or, neither… nor…, either …or…, not only…but also…as well, similarly, likewise, in the same way, that is to say.
递进关系 moreover, What is more, furthermore, then, besides, in addition, additionally
因果关系 because, for, since, as, hence thus, so, consequently
转折关系 but, however, on the contrary, by contrast, unfortunately
让步关系 although, though, even though, even if, nevertheless, no matter …
条件关系 if, only if, if only
for, on, with, by, in, of, upon , against , at, about, from, to, out, off, beyond, into, above, without, through, towards, over
lead come turn get go bring make set hold call take catch
a great/good of 大量(的),许多(的)
a matter of (关于…的)问题;大约
above all 首要,尤其
account for 说明(原因等)
add up to 合计,总计
after a while 过了一会,不久
ahead of 在…前面,先于
ahead of schedule 提前
ahead of time 提前
all at once 突然,同时,一起
all but 几乎,差一点;除…之外其余都
all of a sudden 突然
all the same 仍然,照样的
all the time 一直,始终
allow for 考虑到
along with 与…一起
and so on/forth 等等
and yet 可是,然而
anything but 除…以外任何事(物),根本不
apart from 除去
around/round the clock 昼夜不停的
arrive at 达成,得出
as a matter of fact 其实,事实上
as a rule 通常,照例
as far as/so far as 原至,到…程度
as for 至于,就…方面说
as good as 和…几乎一样,实际上等于
as if 好像,仿佛
as long as/so long as 只要,如果
as regards 关于,至于
as though 好像
as though 好像,仿佛
as to 至于,关于
as well 也,又
as well as 既…又,除…之外(还)
as yet 到目前为止,到那时为止
as/so far as…be concerned 就…来说
aside from 除…以外
ask after 询问,问候
at (the) best 充其量,至多
at (the) worst 在最坏的情况下
at a loss 困惑,不知所措
at a time 每次,一次
at all 完全,根本
at all costs 不惜任何代价,无论如何
at all events 无论如何
at any rate 无论如何,至少
at first sight 乍一看,初看起来
at full tilt 全速的,全力的
at hand 在手边,在附近,即将到来
at heart 在内心,实质上
at home 在家,在国内;自在,自如
at intervals 不时,时时
at large 一般,大体上
at last 最终,终于
at least 至少，最低限度
at leisure 从容的，有空
at length 终于,最后;详细的
at most /at the most 最多,至多,不超过
at no time 从不,决不
at odor (with) (与)…不一致;差异,争执
at one time 同时,曾经,从前曾
at present 目前,现在
at random 随机的,任意的
at stake 在危险中,厉害攸关
at the cost of 以…为代价
at the mercy of 在…支配下
at the moment 现在,此刻
at the same time 但是,然而
at times 有时
at work 在工作,忙于
avail (oneself) of 利用
back and forth 来回,往返,来来往往的
back down/off 放弃,让步,退却
back of 在…后部,在…背部
back up 支持,援助;倒退,后退
be absorbed in 专心于
be accustomed to 习惯于
be bound to 必定,一定
be concerned with 关心,挂念,从事于
be fed up (with) 感到厌烦
be friends with 对…友好,与…交上朋友
be made up of 由…构成,由…组成
be on a diet 节食
bear/keep in mind 记住
before long 不久以后
behind schedule 晚点
break away (from) 脱离,逃跑
break down 损坏,分解,瓦解
break in 强行进入,闯入;打断,插嘴
break into 闯入
break off 断绝,结束
break out 突然发生,爆发;(of)逃出
break through 突破
break up 终止,结束;打碎,拆散
bring about 带来,造成
bring down 打倒,挫伤;降低
bring forth 产生,提出
bring forward 提出
bring out 使出现,使显明;公布,出版
bring to 使恢复知觉
bring up 教育,培养,使成长
bring/put…into practice 实施,实行
build up 积累,堵塞;树立,逐步建立;增进,锻炼
burn out 烧掉,
burn up 烧起来,旺起来;烧完,烧尽
by all means 无论如何,必定
by analogy 用类推的方法
by comparison 比较起来
by courtesy of 蒙…的好意(或准许),蒙…提供(或赠送);由于…的作用
by far …的多,最
by hand 用手
by heart 牢记,凭记忆
by itself 独自,单身
by means of 借助于,用
by mistake 错误的
by nature 天生,就其本性而言
by no means 决不
by oneself 独自的,单独的
by reason of 由于
by the same token 由于同样的原因,同样的
by the way 顺便提一下
by turns 轮流,交替的
by virtue of 由于
by way of 经由,通过…方式
call for 邀请;要求,需要
call forth 唤起,引起;振作起,鼓起
call off 放弃,取消
call on/upon 访问,拜访;号召,呼吁
call up 召集,动员;打电话;使人想起
can’t/couldn’t help 禁不住;不得不
carbon dioxide 二氧化碳
care for 照顾,关心;喜欢,意欲
carry off 夺去
carry on 继续下去,坚持下去;从事,经营
carry out 贯彻,执行,实现
carry/bring into effect 使生效,使起作用
cast/shade/throw light on/upon 使明白,阐明
catch fire 着火
catch on 理解,明白
catch one’s breath 屏息,喘口气
catch one’s eye 引人注目
catch sight of 发现,突然看见
catch up with 追上,赶上
check in 办理登记手续
check out 结账后离开;检查,核算
check up/(up) on 校对,检查,检验
cheer up 使高兴,使振奋;高兴起来,振作起来
clear away 扫除,收拾
clear up 整理,收拾;清除,解除;解释,澄清;(天气)变晴
come off 实现,成功,奏效
come on 请,来吧,跟着来,快点;开始,来临;进展,发展;出场,上演
come out 出版,刊出;出现,显露,长出;结果是,结局是;被解出
come round/around 来访,前来;苏醒,复原
come through 经历,脱险
come to 总计,达到;苏醒,复原
come to the point 说到要点,扼要的说
come true 实现,达到
come up 走近,上来;发生,被提出
come up to 达到,符合
come up with 提出,提供
come/go into effect 生效,实施
come/go into force 生效,实施
come/go onto operation 开始运转,开工
count on 依靠,期望,指望
count up 把…相加
cover up 掩饰,掩盖
cross out 删去,取消
cut across 走捷径,抄近路
cut back 削减,降低
cut down 削减,减少
cut in (汽车)抢挡;插嘴,打断
cut out 删除
cut short 中断,简化
derive from 导出;由…来
die down 渐渐消失,平息
die off 相继死去
die out 消失,灭绝
do away with 废除,去掉
do without 没有…也行
do/try one’s best 尽力,努力
double up 弯腰,把…折起来
doze off 打瞌睡
draw in (火车\汽车)到站
draw on 动用,利用;吸,抽(烟)
draw up 写出,画出;草拟,停住
dress up 穿上盛装,打扮的漂漂亮亮
drop by/in 顺便来访
drop off 减弱,减少
drop out 退出,离队
due to 由于,因为
dwell on 凝思;详述
embark on/upon 从事,着手
ever since 从那时起,自那时以来
ever so 非常,极其
every now and then 有时,时时,偶尔
every other 每隔一个的
face up to 大胆面对
fail to 未能
fair play 公平的竞争,公平对待,光明磊落
fall back on 求助于,转而依靠
fall behind 落后
fall in love (with) 相爱,爱上
fall in with 符合,与…一致;碰见
fall out 争吵,结果是
fall through 落空,失败
feed in 输入
feel like 欲,想要
fill in/out 填充,填写
find fault 埋怨,挑剔
find out 查明
flare up 突然烧起来,突然发怒
for a moment 片刻,一会儿
for a while 暂时,一时
for good 永久的
for long 长久的
for one thing 首先,一则
for short 简称,缩写
for the better 好转,改善
for the moment 现在,暂时
for the present 目前,暂时
for the sake of 为了…起见,看在…的份上
for the time being 目前,暂时
from tine to time 有时,不时
gain/have an advantage over 胜过,优于
get across 即使清楚
get along/on with 进展;相处融洽;生活,过活
get around/round 走动,旅行;(消息)传开
get around/round to 找时间做,开始考虑
get at 得到,接近;意思是
get away 逃脱,离开
get better of 占上风,胜过
get by 通过,经过
get down 从…下来;写下
get down to 开始,着手
get hold of 抓住,掌握
get in 进入;收获,收集
get into 进入,陷入
get off 从…下来,离开,动身,开始
get out of 逃避,改掉
get over 克服,(从病中)恢复过来
get rid of 摆脱,除去
get the best of 胜过
get the better of 打败,智胜
get through 结束,完成
get together 集合,聚集
get up 起床;增加,增强
get/learn by heart 记住,背诵
give away 泄漏;分送
give back 送还,恢复
give in 交上;投降,屈服
give off 放出,释放
give oneself away 泄漏,露马脚
give oneself up 自首,投降,投案
give out 分发,放出
give rise to 引起,使发生;造成
give up 停止,放弃
give way 让路,让步
give way to 给…让路,对…让步;被…替代
go after 追求
go ahead 开始,前进,领先
go along with 陪同前往,随行
go around/round 足够分配
go back on 违背
go by 过去
go down 下降,降低;被载入,传下去
go for 竭力想取得,喜爱,支持,拥护
go in for 从事,致力于,追求,沉迷于
go into 进入;研究,调查
go on 继续,发生
go out 外出,熄灭
go over 检查,审查;复习,重温
go through 经历,经受;详细检查
go under 下沉,沉没;失败,破产
go up 上升,增加;建起
go with 伴随,与…协调
go without 没有…也行
go wrong 发生故障,出毛病
good for 有效,适用,胜任
had better 最好还是,应该
had/would rather…than 宁愿…,而不愿
hand down 流传下来,传给,往下传
hand in 交上,递交
hand in hand 手拉着手,携手;结合起来,联合
hand on 传下来,依次传递
hand out 分发,散发,发给
hand over 交出,移交,让与
hang about 闲荡,徘徊,逗留
hang back 由于,踌躇,畏缩
hang on 抓紧不放;继续下去,等一下
hang on to 紧握住,坚持下去
hang up 挂断(电话)
happen to 碰巧,偶然
hardly … when/before 刚一…就…
hardly any 几乎没有,几乎什么也不
have (something) to do with 和…有(点)关系
have back 要回,收回
have in mind 记住,考虑到,想到
have nothing to do with 和…毫无关系
have on 穿着,戴着
have to do with 与…有关
head for 驶向,走向
head on 迎头,迎面
heart and soul 全心全意
help oneself 自取所需(食物等)
hold back 踌躇,退缩;阻止,抑制
hold on 继续,握住不放
hold out 维持,支持;坚持,不屈服
hold up 举起,承载;阻挡,使停止;抢劫,拦截
home and aboard 国内外
hot dog 红肠面包,热狗
how about …如何,…怎样
hunger after 渴望
hunger for 渴望
hurry up (使)赶快,迅速完成
if only 要是…多好;要是,只要
improve on 改进
in a hurry 匆忙的,急于
in a sense 从某种意义上说
in a way 在某点,在某种程度上
in addition 另外
in addition to 除…之外
in advance 提前,预先
in all 总共,共计
in alliance with 与…联盟
in any case 无论如何,总之
in any event 无论如何
in brief 简单的说,简言之
in bulk 散装,大批,大量
in case 假如,以防(万一),免得
in case of 假如,万一
in charge (of) 负责,主管
in chorus 一齐,一致,共同
in common 共同,共有,共用
in conclusion 最后,总之
in connection with/to 关于
in consequence of 由于…的缘故
in contrast with/to 与…成反比
in danger 在危险中,垂危
in debt 欠债,欠情
in detail 详细的
in effect 有效;实际上
in essence 大体上,本质上
in excess of 超过
in favor of 有利于,便于,赞成,支持
in force 有效,实施中
in half 成两半
in hand 在控制中,在进行中
in hasten 急忙的,草率的
in honor of 为纪念,向…表示敬意
in itself 本身
in line 成一直线,排成一行
in line with 和…成直线,与…一致,按照
in memory of 纪念
in nature 本质上
in no case 决不
in no time 立即,马上
in no way 决不
in one’s way /in the way 妨碍,阻碍
in order 秩序井然,整齐
in other words 换句话说,也就是说
in particular 特别的,尤其,详细的
in place 在适当的位置
in place of 代替
in practice 在实践中,实际上
in proportion (to) (与…)成比例的
in question 正在考虑
in return 作为回报,作为报答
in secret 秘密的,私下的
in sequence 依次,逐一
in shape 处于良好状态
in sight 被见到,在望
in spite of 不管,不顾,尽管,虽然
in step 同步,合拍
in stock 现有,备有
in succession 连续的
in tears 流着泪,含泪,哭
in terms of 依据,按照;用…措词
in the air 在流行中,在传播中
in the course of 在…过程中,在…期间
in the distance 在远处
in the event of 万一,如果发生
in the face of 面对,在…面前;不顾,即使
in the first place 起初,首先
in the last place 最后
in the least 一点，丝毫
in the light of 按照,根据
in the long run 最终,从长远观点看
in the way of 妨碍
in the world 到底,究竟
in time 及时,适时的
in truth 实际上,的确
in turn 依次,轮流
in/with relation to 关系到
just and then 时而,不时
just that 既然,由于
keep an eye on 留意,照看
keep back 阻止,阻挡;隐瞒,保留
keep company with 与…交往,与…结伴
keep down 控制,压制,镇压;压低,放低(声音)
keep from 使…不(做)
keep house 管理家务,作家务
keep in touch 保持联系
keep off 不接近,避开
keep one’s head 保持镇静
keep one’s word 守信用
keep out of 躲开,置身…之外
keep to 坚持,保持
keep track 通晓事态,注意动向
keep up with 向…看齐,跟上…
keep/hold pace with 跟上,与…同步
knock down 撞倒,击倒
knock out 击倒,击昏
known as 被认为是,被称为
lay aside 把…搁置一边;储蓄
lay down 放下;制定,拟定;铺设
lay off (临时)解雇;休息
lay out 安排，布置；陈列，展示；设计，制定
lead the way 带路,引路
leave behind 留下，忘记带
leave out 遗漏，略去
lend itself to 适宜于，对…有用
let alone 不干涉;更不用说
let down 放下,降低;使失望
let go 放开,松手
let in 让…进入,放…进来
let loose 放开,放松,释放
let off 放(炮,烟火),开(枪);宽恕,从宽处理;免除
let out 放掉,放出,发出;放大(衣服);放松(绳子)
lie in 在于
line up 排队,使排成一行
little by little 逐渐的
live on/by 靠…生活,以…为食
live through 度过,经受过
live up to 做到,不辜负
look after 照管,照料
look back 回顾,回头看
look down on 看不起,轻视
look forward to 盼望,期待
look in 顺便看望
look into 调查,观察,过问,窥视
look on 旁观,观看;看待;视作
look out 留神,注意,提防,警惕
look over 检查,察看,调查
look through 仔细察看,浏览,温习
look up 查阅,查询
look up to 尊敬,敬仰
lose heart 丧失勇气,失去信心
lose one’s head 不知所措
lose one’s temper 发怒,发脾气
lose track 失去联系
make a face 做鬼脸
make a fool of 玩弄,愚弄
make a fuss of 娇养(某人),过分关怀(某人)
make a/the difference 有影响,很重要
make allowances for 考虑到,顾及;体谅,原谅
make believe 假装
make for 走向,驶向;有助于,有利于
make fun of 取笑,嘲弄
make one’s way 前进,行进
make out 辨认,区分;理解,了解;开列,书写
make progress 进步,进展
make sense 讲的通,有意义,言之有理
make sure of/that 查明,弄确实;确信;确定,务必
make the best of 充分利用,妥善处理
make the most of 充分利用
make up 构成,组成,拼凑;弥补,赔偿;化装,编造;和解
make up for 补偿,弥补
make up one’s mind 下决心
make use of 利用
make way 开路,让路
many a 许多的
mark time 原地踏步,停止不前,拖延时间
matter of fact 实际情况,真相
mix up 混合;混淆,搞糊涂
more or less 或多或少;几乎
never mind 不要紧,没关系
no doubt 无疑,必定
no less than 决不少于,不亚于,不次于;(和…)一样
no matter how(what,when…etc.) 无论怎样(什么,何时…等)
no more 不再
no more than 不过,仅仅,和…一样不
no sooner…than 一…就,刚…便
no wonder 难得,怪不得
nothing but 只有,仅仅
occur to 被想到,被想起
of/to no avail 不起作用,没有用
off and on 断断续续,不时的
off duty 下班
on (the) impulse (of…) 凭(…的)冲动
on (the)one ~…,on the other 一方面…,另一方面…
on (the/an) average 平均,一般说来
on a large scale 大规模的
on account of 因为,由于
on behalf of 代表,为了
on board 在船(车,飞机)上
on business 因公,因事
on conditional that 在…条件下
on cue 恰好在这个时候
on duty 值班,上班
on earth 究竟,到底;在世界上
on fire 烧着
on guard 警惕,防范
on hand 在手边,临近
on occasion 有时,不时
on one’s honor 以名誉担保
on one’s own 独自的,独立的
on sale 出售,贱卖
on schedule 按预定时间
on second thoughts 经重新考虑,一转念
on the basis of 根据,在…的基础上
on the contrary 反之,正相反
on the point of 即将…的时候
on the rode 在旅途中
on the side 作为兼职,额外
on the sly 偷偷的,冷不防的
on the spot 当场,在现场
on the stage 当演员
on the verge of 接近于,濒于
on the whole 总的来说
on time 准时
on top of 在…之上
once (and) for all 一劳永逸,限此一次
once in a while 偶尔,有时
once more 再一次,又一次
once upon a time 从前
one after another 一个接一个
one another 相互
or so 大约,左右
other than 不同于
out of 丧失,失去;缺乏,没有
out of breath 喘不过起来,上气不接下气
out of control 失去控制
out of danger 脱离危险
out of date 过期
out of doors 在户外
out of order 发生故障,失调
out of place 不得其所得,不适当的
out of practice 久不练习,荒疏
out of sight 看不见,在视野之外
out of step 步调不一致,不协调
out of touch 失去联系
out of work 失业
over and over (again) 一再,再三
owing to 由于
pass away 去世,逝世
pass off 中止,停止
pass out 失去知觉,昏倒
pay attention to 注意
pay back 偿还,回报
pay off 还清(债),给清工资后遣散;使…得益;有报偿
pay up 全部付清
per cent 百分之
pick out 选出,挑出,拣出;辨认,辨认出
pick up 拾起,拣起;增加,改进;(偶然)得到;(车船)中途搭(人),中途带(货);获得,学会
play a part (in) 起作用
play with 以…为消遣,玩弄
prey on 捕食,杀害;折磨,损害
pull down 拆毁,拉倒;拉下,降低
pull in (车)停下,进站,(船)到岸
pull off 脱(帽.衣等)
pull on 穿,戴
pull out 拔出,抽出,取出;(车船等)驶出;(车辆)减速
pull up (使)停下
put across 解释清楚,说明
put aside 储存,保留
put away 放好,收好;储存
put down 记下,放下;镇压,平定
put forward 提出
put in 驶进
put in for 申请
put in order 整理,检修
put into effect 实行,生效
put off 推迟,推延
put on 穿上,戴上;上演;增加(体重)
put out 熄灭,消灭,关(灯);出版,发布;生产
put to use 使用,利用
put up 提出,举起,升起,提(价);为…提供食宿,投宿;建造,搭起,支起;张贴
put up with 容忍,忍受
put/bring into operation 使投入生产,使运转
quite a few 还不少,有相当数目的
quite little 相当多,不少
rather than 而不,不顾
reckon on 依靠,指望
reckon with 估计到,预料到;处理,对付
refer to 参考,查阅;涉及,提到;把…提交
refer to as 把…称作,把…当作
rest room 带厕所或浴室的休息室
ring off 挂断电话
rub out 擦掉,试去
run down 撞倒,停掉,撞沉;追捕,追获,追查出
run for 竞选
run into 撞上,偶然碰见
run off 复印,打印
run out of 用完,用尽,耗尽
run over 溢出,满出;略读,略述;辗过;浏览,匆匆复习
run short 用完,耗尽
sand up to 勇敢的面对,坚持抵抗,经得起
scrape through 擦过,勉强通过
see off 给…送行
see through 看穿,识破;干完,干到底
see to 注意,负责,照料;修理
send for 派人去送,召唤;索取
send in 呈报,提交,送来
serve as 作为,用作
serve sb right 活该;给某人应得的待遇
set about 开始,着手
set aside 挑出,拨出,留出;拒绝
set back 推迟,延缓,阻碍
set down 卸下,放下;记下,记入
set fire to 点燃
set forth 阐明,陈述
set free 释放
set off 出发,动身,引起,使发生
set out 陈列,显示;动身,启程;制定
set out to 打算,着手
set up 创立,建立,树立;资助,扶持
settle down 定居,过安定的生活
show in 领入
show off 炫耀,卖弄
show up 使呈现,使醒目;出席,到场
shut out 排除
sick of 厌烦
side by side 肩并肩,一个挨一个
side walk 人行道
sit for 参加
sit in 列席,旁听
sit up 迟睡,熬夜
so…as to 结果是;如此…以至于,如此…以使
sooner or later 迟早,早晚
speed up 使加速
stand by 支持,帮助,站在一边;袖手旁观
stand for 代替,代表,意味着
stand out 突出,显眼
stand up 站起来,耐用
stand up for 为…辩护,维护
start from scratch 从头做起,从零开始
step by step 逐步
step in 插入,介入
step up 提高,加快,加紧
stick out 伸出,突出;坚持到底,继续
stick to 坚持;忠于;信守
summon up 鼓起(勇气),奋起;唤起
take a chance 冒险一试
take advantage of 利用
take after 与…相像
take apart 拆卸
take away 消除,消耗
take care 小心,当心
take care of 照顾,照料;承担,处理,负责
take charge of 担任,负责
take delight in 以…为乐
take down 记下,写下
take effect 生效,起作用
take in 接受,吸收;了解,理解;欺骗
take off 拿走;脱下;起飞
take on 呈现,具有,装出;接纳,承担,从事
take one’s cue from 学…的样,听…的劝告
take one’s time 不急不忙,从容进行
take over 接管,接办
take pains 尽力,煞费苦心
take part in 参加
take place 发生,进行
take shape 成形
take the place of 代替
take to 喜欢,亲近
take turns 轮流
take up 占去,占据;开始从事;拿起,接收
take…for granted 想当然,认为理所当然
take…into account 考虑
talk back 回嘴,顶嘴
talk into 说服
thanks to 由于,幸亏
the moment (that) 一…就
think better of 改变主意,重新考虑
think of … as 把…看作是,以为…是
think over 仔细考虑
thousands of 许多,无数
to and fro 来来回回
to date 到目前为止
to the point 切中要害,切题
touch on 关系到,涉及
touch up 润色,改进
try on 试穿
try out 试验
tug of war 拔河
tune in (to sth.) 调谐,收听
turn down 关小,调低;拒绝
turn in 交出,上缴;转身进入,拐入
turn into 变成
turn off 关掉,断开;拐弯,叉开
turn on 接通,打开
turn out 制造,生产;结果是;驱逐,使离开
turn over 翻过来,翻倒;转移,转交
turn to 变成,求助于,借助于
turn up 开大,调大;出现,来到,发生
under control 被控制住
up to 起来,从事于,忙于;直到;该由…,轮到,胜任,适于
up to date 时新的
use up 用完,花完
vice versa 反之亦然
ward off 防治,避开
warm up 变热
wear off 逐渐消逝
wear out 用破,用坏,磨损;耗尽,使筋疲力尽
what about (对于)怎么样
what if 如果…将会怎样,即使…又有什么要紧
wipe out 擦去,除去;消灭,毁灭
with respect to 关于
with the exception of 除…之外
with/in regard to 对于,就…而论
word for word 逐字地
work out 解决,算出;设计出,制定出
work up 引起,激起;逐渐上升,向上爬
write off 报废,勾销,注销
RootNo RootType Root RootChinese RootEnglish
1 pref a- 加在单词或词根前面, 表示 "不，无，非"
2 pref a- 加在单词前, 表示 "在..., ...的"
3 pref ab-, abs- 加在词根前,表示 "相反，变坏，离去" 等
4 pref ab-, ac-, ad-, af-, ag-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at- 等加在同辅音字母词根前，表示"一再" 等加强意
5 pref ad- 加在单词或词根前, 表示 "做....., 加强......"
6 pref amphi- 表示 "两个、两种"
7 pref an- 在词根前, 表示 "不，无"
8 pref ana- 表示 "错误，在旁边，分开"
9 pref ante- 表示 "前面，先"
10 pref anti- 表示 "反对，相反"
11 pref apo- 表示 "离开，远离"
12 pref auto- 表示 "自动、自已"
13 pref be- 构成动词， 表示 "使......成为"
14 pref be- 构成一些介词
15 pref bene- 表示 "善, 好"
16 pref bi- 表示 "二个, 两"
17 pref by- 表示 "在旁边，副的"
18 pref cata- 表示"向下，相反，离开"
19 pref circum- 表示 "环绕，周围"
20 pref co- 表示 "共同"，通常放元音词根前
21 pref col-, cor- 在同辅音词根前, 表示 "共同"
22 pref com-, con- 表示 "共同"
23 pref contra - 表示 "反对，相反"
24 pref counter - 表示 "反对，相反"
25 pref de- 表示 "去掉，变坏， 离开，变慢，向下"等
26 pref de- 表示 "使....成为， 加强" 等
27 pref deca- 表示 "十"
28 pref deci- 表示 "十分之一"
29 pref demi- 表示 "半"
30 pref di- 表示 "二个，双"
31 pref di- 表示 "使...变成，分开，离开"
32 pref dia- 表示 "穿过，二者之间"
33 pref dif- 和辅音重复表示 "不，否定，分开"
34 pref dis- 表示 "不，消失掉"
35 pref dis- 表示 "分开，分离"
36 pref dys- 表示 "坏，不良"
37 pref e-, ef- 表示 "出，出来，"
38 pref em-, en-, 表示 "进入... 之中，包围"
39 pref em-,en-, 表示 "使..... 进入状态"
40 pref endo- 表示 " 内部"
41 pref epi- 表示 "在...上，在...周围，在...后面"
42 pref eu- 表示 "好，优秀"
43 pref ex- 表示 "出，出去"
44 pref ex- 表示 "前面的，前任的"
45 pref exo- 表示 "外部的，外面"
46 pref extra- 表示 "以外的，超过的"
47 pref fore- 表示 "前面，预先"
48 pref hecto- 表示 "百，许多"
49 pref hemi- 表示 "半"
50 pref hepta- 表示 "七"
51 pref hetero- 表示 "异类，异种"
52 pref hexa- 表示 "六"
53 pref holo- 表示 "全部'
54 pref homo- 表示 "同类的"
55 pref hyper- 表示 "超过，太多"
56 pref hypo- 表示 "下面，次等"
57 pref il-, ir- 辅音重复表示 "不，无"
58 pref il-,ir- 表示 "使.....成为，进入"
59 pref im-, in- 表示 "不，无，非"
60 pref im-,in- 表示 "向内，进入"
61 pref inter- 表示 "在..... 之间，相互"
62 pref intra- 表示 "在内，内部"
63 pref intro- 表示 "向内，入内"
64 pref iso- 表示 "等, 同"
65 pref kilo- 表示 "一千"
66 pref macro- 表示 "宏传， 大"
67 pref mal-; male 表示 "坏，恶 "
68 pref meta- 表示 "超过, 改变"
69 pref micro- 表示 "微，小"
70 pref milli- 表示 "千，千分之一"
71 pref mini- 表示 "小"
72 pref mis- 表示 "错误，坏"
73 pref mono- 表示 "单个，一个"
74 pref multi- 表示 "多，很多"
75 pref neo- 表示 "新的"
76 pref non- 表示 "不，非"
77 pref ob- 表示 "逆，倒，加强意义"
78 pref octa- 表示 "八"; 亦作octo
79 pref omni- 表示 "全部，到处"
80 pref out- 示 "超过，过度"
81 pref out- 表示 "出去，过时"
82 pref over- 表示 "过度，过份"
83 pref over- 表示 "翻转"
84 pref over- 表示 "在... 之上"
85 pref paleo- 表示 "古，旧"
86 pref pan- 表示 "广泛的"
87 pref para- 表示 "半，类似，辅助"
88 pref para- 表示 "旁边"
89 pref para- 表示 "降落伞"
90 pref pen- 表示 "近似，差不多"
91 pref penta- 表示"五"
92 pref per- 表示 "贯穿，自始至终"
93 pref per- 表示 "假，坏"
94 pref peri- 表示 "周围，靠近"
95 pref poly- 表示 "多"
96 pref post- 表示 "在后面"
97 pref post- 表示 "邮件，邮政"
98 pref pre- 表示 "...前的，预先"
99 pref pro- 表示"赞同，亲..."
100 pref pro- 表示 "向前，在前"
101 pref pro- 表示 "很多..."
102 pref proto- 表示 "原始..."
103 pref pseudo- 表示 "假，伪"
104 pref quadri-,quadru- 表示 "四"
105 pref quasi- 表示 "类似，准"
106 pref re- 表示 "向后，相反"
107 pref re- 表示 "一再，重新"
108 pref retro- 表示 "向后，倒退"
109 pref se- 表示 "分开，离开，区别开"
110 pref semi- 表示 "半"
111 pref sept-,septi- 表示 "七"
112 pref sex-, sexi- 表示 "六"
113 pref step- 表示 "后，继或前夫(妻)所生"
114 pref stereo- 表示 "立体"
115 pref sub- 表示 "在下面，次一等，副手"
116 pref sub- 表示 "接近，靠近"
117 pref suc-, suf-, sup-, sur- 等辅音重复表示 " 在...下面"
118 pref super- 表示 "在...上面"
119 pref super- 表示 "超级，超过，过度"
120 pref supra- 表示 "超..."
121 pref sur- 辅音不重复表示 "超过，在上面"
122 pref sus- 表示 "在... 下面"
123 pref sym-, syn- 表示 "共同，相同"
124 pref tetra- 表示"四"
125 pref trans- 表示 "横过，越过"
126 pref trans- 表示 "变换，改变'；转移"
127 pref tri- 表示 "三"
128 pref twi- 表示"二、两"
129 pref ultra- 表示 "极端"
130 pref ultra- 表示 "超出，超过"
131 pref un- 表示 "不，无，非，没有"
132 pref un- 表示 "打开，解开，弄出"
133 pref under- 表示 "在...下，在...之内"
134 pref under- 表示 "不足，不够"
135 pref under- 表示 "副手"3
136 pref uni- 表示 "一个、单一"
137 pref vice- 表示 "副"
138 pref with- 表示 "向后，相反"
139 suff -ability 表名词，"能...；性质"
140 suff -able 表形容词，"可...的，能..."
141 suff -ably 表副词，"能...地"
142 suff -aceous 表形容词，"具有...特征的"
143 suff -acious 表形容词，"有特征的，多...的"
144 suff -acity 表名词，"有...倾向"
145 suff -acle 表名词, "... 物品，状态"
146 suff -acy 表名词, "...性质，状态"
147 suff -ad 表名词，"...东西，状态"
148 suff -ade 表名词, 表示"状态，物品"
149 suff -ade 表示"个人或集体"
150 suff -age 表示："费用"
151 suff -age 表示"场所，物品"
152 suff -age 名词后缀,表示"状态，总称"
153 suff -ain 表名词，"...人"
154 suff -air 表名词，"人、物"
155 suff -aire 表名词，"...人"
156 suff -al 表形容词，"...的"
157 suff -al 表名词，"人，物，状态"
158 suff -ality 表名词，"状态，性质"
159 suff -ally 表副词，由al+ly 构成，"...地"
160 suff -an 表名词和形容词，"...地方，...人"
161 suff -ance 表名词，"性质，状况"
162 suff -aneity 表名词，表示"性质，状态"
163 suff -aneous 表形容词，"...有; ...特征的"
164 suff -aneous 表形容词，"...的"
165 suff -ant 表名词，"...人"
166 suff -ant 表名词，"...剂"
167 suff -ar 表形容词，"...的"
168 suff -ard 表名词，"不好的人"
169 suff -arian 表形容词或名词，"...的(人)"
170 suff -arium 表名词，"地点，场所"
171 suff -ary 表名词，"人，场所，物"
172 suff -ary 表形容词，"...的"
173 suff -ast 表名词，"...人，物"
174 suff -aster 表名词，"不怎么样的人"
175 suff -ate 表动词，"做，造成"
176 suff -ate 表形容词，"具有...的"
177 suff -ate 表名词，"人或地位"
178 suff -atic 表形容词，"有...性质的"
179 suff -ation 表名词，"行为，过程，结果"
180 suff -ative 表形容词，"有...倾向(性质)的"
181 suff -ator 表名词，通常由ate结尾的动词而来，"做事的人或物"
182 suff -atory 表名词"场所，地点"
183 suff -atory 表形容词，"有...性质的"
184 suff -cy 表名词，也作-acy, "性质，状态"
185 suff -dom 表名词，"状态或领域"
186 suff -ee 表名词，"被动或主动的人"
187 suff -eer 表名词，"... 人员"
188 suff -el 表名词，"人或物"
189 suff -en 表动词，"变成"
190 suff -en 表形容词，"由...制成的"，通常加在名词后面
191 suff -en 表名词，"人或物"
192 suff -ence 表名词，"性质，状态"
193 suff -ency 表名词，ence 的变体
194 suff -enne 表名词，"女性"
195 suff -ent 表形容词，"...的"
196 suff -ent 表名词，"...药剂"
197 suff -ent 表名词，"...人"
198 suff -eous 表形容词，"有...的"
199 suff -er 表动词，"反复做"
200 suff -er 表名词，"物品，机器"
201 suff -er 表名词，"...人"
202 suff -ern 表形容词，"...方向的"
203 suff -ern 表名词，"...场所"
204 suff -ery 表名词，"场所，地点"
205 suff -ery 表名词，"行为，情况"
206 suff -esque 表形容词，"如...的"
207 suff -ess 表名词，"女性，雌性"
208 suff -et 表名词，"小东西"
209 suff -etic 表形容词，"属于...的"
210 suff -ette 表名词，"小的东西或状态"
211 suff -ety 表名词，"状态"
212 suff -eur 表名词，"...人"
213 suff -faction 表名词，"达到的状态"，由-fy转化而来
214 suff -fic 表形容词，"产生...的"
215 suff -fication 表名词，由fic变化而来
216 suff -fier 表名词，"人或物"，由-ify转化而来
217 suff -fold 表形容词或副词，"倍，双重"
218 suff -form 表形容词，"有...形状的"
219 suff -ful 表形容词,"有...的"
220 suff -ful 表名词,"满，量"
221 suff -fy 表动词,"...化，成为..."， 更多时候作"-ify"
222 suff -hood 表名词,"时期，性质等"
223 suff -ia 表名词,"某种病"
224 suff -ia 表名词,"总称，状态"
225 suff -ial 表形容词，"有...的"
226 suff -ian 表名词，"某种人"
227 suff -ian 表形容词, "...国家的"
228 suff -ibility 表名词，"具备...性质的"
229 suff -ible 形容词 "能...的"
230 suff -ic 表形容词, "....的"，有时作-tic
231 suff -ic 表名词，"某种药"
232 suff -ic 表名词，"人或学科"
233 suff -ical 表形容词，"...的"
234 suff -ice 表名词，"行为，状态"
235 suff -ics 表名词，"学科，学术"
236 suff -id 表形容词，"如...的"
237 suff -ie 表名词，"小东西或人"
238 suff -ier 表名词，"人或物"
239 suff -ile 表形容词，"...的"
240 suff -ile 表名词，"物体"
241 suff -ine 表形容词，"...的"
242 suff -ine 表名词，"人或女人"
243 suff -ine 表名词，"状态, 药物等"
244 suff -ing 表形容词，"正...的"，"令人...的"
245 suff -ing 表名词，"行业"
246 suff -ing 表名词，"物品"
247 suff -ing 表名词，"状态"
248 suff -ion 表名词，"动作或状态"分为 --sion和--tion两种
249 suff -ion 表示"某种物，用品"
250 suff -ior 表形容词，"较...的"
251 suff -ious 表形容词,"....的"
252 suff -ise 表动词后缀，和 -ize 相同，是 -ize 的变体，"...化"
253 suff -ise 表名词，"物品，状态"
254 suff -ish 表形容词，"象...一样，有的..."， 通常放在一具体名词后
255 suff -ish 表动词，"造成..."
256 suff -ish 表示国家的或语言
257 suff -ism 表示 "学术或学术流派"
258 suff -ism 表示 "行为, 现象，状态"
259 suff -ism 表示 "疾病"
260 suff -ism 表示 "具备某种性质"
261 suff -ism 名词，表示 "各种主义，宗教"
262 suff -ist 表名词，"表示信仰者，专家或从事人"
263 suff -ist 以-ist 结尾的单词，不少同时可做名词和形容词用。
264 suff -istic 表形容词，由-ist + ic 构成,表示 " ...的"
265 suff -it 表名词，通常是抽象名词
266 suff -it 表名词，"...人"
267 suff -ite 表形容词，"有...的"
268 suff -ite 表名词，"人或物"
269 suff -ite 表动词，"促成"
270 suff -ition 表名词，"行为过程，状态"
271 suff -itious 表形容词，-ition变化而来，表示 "...的"
272 suff -itive 表形容词，"...的"
273 suff -itor 表名词，"人"
274 suff -itude 表名词，"性质，状态等"
275 suff -ity 表名词，指具备某种性质6
276 suff -ive 表形容词，根据不同的单词结尾可分-sive, -ative, ive, itive
277 suff -ivity 表名词，由-ive+ity 组成，"有...能力或特性"
278 suff -ization 表名词，来自-ize+ation, "...化"或 "发展过程"
279 suff -ize 构成一些动词
280 suff -kin 表名词，"小..."
281 suff -less 表形容词， "无...的，不...的"
282 suff -let = -et 表示"小"
283 suff -like 表形容词，"像...一样"
284 suff -ling 表名词， "小东西或某种人"
285 suff -ly 表形容词，通常加在名词后。9
286 suff -ly 表副词，通常放在形容词后
287 suff -ment 表名词，"行为或结果"
288 suff -ment 表示具体物
289 suff -most 表形容词，"最...的"
290 suff -ness 表名词，"性质, 状态，"通常加在形容词后面
291 suff -o 表名词，"人，物或状态"
292 suff -o 表名词，用于音乐术语
293 suff -on 表名词，指人、物和一些物理学上的名词
294 suff -oon 表名词，"人或物"
295 suff -or 表名词，"人或物器"，在一些词根前写成"-ator"
296 suff -orium = arium 表名词，"地点，场所"
297 suff -ory 表名词，指场所等
298 suff -ory 表形容词，"...的"6
299 suff -ose 表形容词，"多...的"
300 suff -osity 表名词，-ose+ity组成，表示"多...的状态"
301 suff -ot 表名词，"...人"
302 suff -ous 表形容词，通常放在一个完整的单词后，表示"...的"
303 suff -proof 表形容词，"防...的"
304 suff -ress 表名词，指"物品"9
305 suff -ress 表名词，指"女性"5
306 suff -ry 表示集合名词
307 suff -ry 表示 "场地"
308 suff -ry 表示"行业，学科"
309 suff -ry 表名词，通常放在一个完整的单词后面表示状态，性质
310 suff -ship 表示某种技能
311 suff -ship 表名词,表示某种关系或状态
312 suff -some 表形容词，"充满...的，具有...倾向的"
313 suff -ster 表名词，"...人"0
314 suff -th 表名词，通常指抽象名词
315 suff -tic 表形容词，通常放在一个名词前，"与...相关的，...的"
316 suff -ture -ture在s结尾的词根后变成-sure
317 suff -ture 表名词，通常在单词或词根以t结尾时使用，表示"一般状态, 行为"并作"-ature""iture"
318 suff -ty 表名词，用在形容词后，把形容词变成名词
319 suff -ular 表形容词,"有...形状或性质的"
320 suff -ule 表名词，"小..."
321 suff -uous 表形容词，"多...的"
322 suff -ward 表形容词+副词，"向..."
323 suff -wise 有些单词，wise可以换成ways，意义不变
324 suff -wise 表副词，"方向，状态"
325 suff -y 表名词，加在形容词或以r结尾的单词后。
326 suff -y 表名词，"人或小东西"常带有嬉谑性和爱称。
327 suff -y 表形容词，加在名词后变成形容词
328 suff ancy = ance 表示 "性质，状况"
329 root acid, acri, acrid, acu 表示 "尖，酸，锐利" sour, sharp
330 root act 表示"行动、做" to do, to drive
331 root aer, aero, aeri 表示 "空气，充气"等 air
332 root ag 表示 "做，代理做" do, act
333 root agri, agro, agr 表示 "田地，农业"等 field, land
334 root alter,altern,ali 表示 "其它的，改变状态" other, to change
335 root am, amor,amat 表示 "爱，情爱" love
336 root ambul 表示 "行走，走路" walk
337 root anim 表示 "生命，精神"等 life, spirit
338 root ann, enn 表示 "年，一年" year
339 root anthrop 表示 "人，人类' man, human
340 root apt, ept 表示 "适应，能力" fit, ability
341 root aqu 表示 "水" water
342 root arch, archy 表示 "统治者，统治，主要的" ruler, rule, chief
343 root art 表示 "技巧，关节，诡计" skill, joint, trick
344 root astro, aster 表示 "星星" star
345 root audi, audit 表示 "听" hear
346 root av, avar, avi 表示 "渴望，鸟" desire, bird
347 root ball, bol 表示 "抛，舞，球" throw, dance, ball
348 root bas, base 表示 "低下，基础" low, foundation
349 root bell, bel 表示 "战争，打斗" war, fight
350 root bio, bi 表示 "生命，生物" life
351 root brev, bridg 表示 "短，缩短" short
352 root cad, cas, cid 表示 "落下，降临" fall
353 root cand 表示 "白，发光" white, glow
354 root cant, cent 表示 "唱，歌" sing, song
355 root cap, capt, cept, ceive, cip, cup 表示 "拿，抓，握住" take, hold, seize
356 root cap, cipit 表示 "头" head
357 root card, cord 表示 "心脏，一致" heart
358 root carn 表示 "肉，肉欲" flesh
359 root ced, ceed, cess 表示 "行走，前进" go
360 root celer 表示 "快，速" quick, speed
361 root cent 表示 "一百" hundred
362 root centr 表示 "中心" center
363 root cern, cert, cret 表示 "搞清, 区别" sure, separate
364 root chron 表示 "时间" time
365 root cid, cis 表示 "切开，杀" cut, kill
366 root circ, cycl 表示 "圆，环" ring, circle
367 root cit 表示 "引用，引起" quote, call
368 root claim, clam 表示 "呼喊，叫喊" cry out, shout
369 root clear, clar, clair 表示 "清楚，明白" clear, bright
370 root clin, cliv 表示 "倾斜，斜坡" lean, slope
371 root clos, clud, clus 表示 "关闭" close
372 root corp, corpor 表示 "身体，团体" body
373 root cracy;crat 表示 "统治或政体";"统治者" rule;ruler
374 root creed, cred 表示 "相信，信任" believe, trust
375 root cre, crease 表示，"增长，产生" grow, make
376 root cruc, crus, crux 表示 "十字形，交叉" cross
377 root crypt 表示 "秘密，隐藏" secret, hidden
378 root cub,cumb;cumber 表示 "躺";"躺的东西，障碍" lie down;barrier
379 root cult 表示 "耕种，培养" till
380 root cur 表示 "关心" care
381 root cur(r), curs, cour, cours 表示 "跑，发生" run
382 root dem(o) 表示 "人民，人们" people
383 root dent 表示 "牙齿" tooth
384 root derm, dermat 表示 "皮肤" skin
385 root dict, dicat 表示 "说话，断言" say, assert
386 root dign 表示 "值得，高贵" worthy, noble
387 root doc, doct 表示 "教" to teach
388 root don, dit 表示 "给予" give
389 root du, dub, doub 表示 "二，双" two
390 root duc, duct 表示 "引导，带来" lead, bring
391 root dur 表示"持久，艰硬" last, hard
392 root dyn, dynam 表示 "力量" power
393 root em, ampl, empt 表示 "拿，获得" take, procure
394 root equ, equi 表示 "相等，平均" equal, even
395 root erg, ert 表示 "能量，活动" energy, work
396 root err 表示 "漫游，犯错误" wander, mistake
397 root ev 表示 "年龄，时代" age
398 root fabl, fabul 表示 "讲 ,说" speak
399 root fac, fic 表示 "脸，面" face
400 root fac, fact, fect, fic, fig 表示 "做，制作" make, do
401 root fall, fail, fault 表示 "犯错误， 欺骗" err, deceive
402 root fer 表示 "带来，拿来" bring, carry
403 root ferv 表示 "沸，热" boil
404 root fid 表示 "相信，信念 " trust,faith
405 root fin 表示 "结束，范围" end, boundary
406 root flam, flagr 表示 "火焰" blaze
407 root flect, flex 表示 "弯曲" bend
408 root flict 表示 "打击"1 strike
409 root flor, flour 表示 "花"6 flower
410 root flu 表示 "流动" flow
411 root forc, fort 表示 "强大，力量" strong
412 root form 表示 "形状" shape
413 root fract, frag 表示 "打碎" break
414 root frig 表示 "冷" cold
415 root fug 表示 "逃，离开"2 flee
416 root fus 表示 "流，泻" pour
417 root gen, genit 表示 "出生，产生" birth, produce
418 root geo 表示 "地，地球" earth
419 root gest, gister 表示 "带来，产生" carry, bring
420 root gnos, gnor 表示 "知道 "3 know
421 root gon 表示 "角" angle
422 root grad 表示 "步，级" step, grade
423 root gram, graph 表示 "写，图" write
424 root grat, gree 表示 "感激，高兴" pleasing
425 root grav, griev 表示 "重" heavy
426 root greg 表示 "群体" group
427 root gress 表示"行走" go, walk
428 root gyn, gyneco 表示 "妇女" woman
429 root habit 表示 "居住"1 dwell
430 root hap 表示 "机会，运气" chance
431 root her, hes 表示 "粘附" stick
432 root hibit 表示 "拿住" hold
433 root hum 表示 "土，地" earth
434 root hydr, hydro 表示 "水" water
435 root idea, ideo 表示 "思想，观点" idea
436 root idio 表示 "特殊的，个人的" peculiar, private
437 root it 表示 "行走" go
438 root ject 表示 "投掷、扔" throw, cast
439 root judic, judg 表示 "判断" judge
440 root junct,join 表示 "结合，连接" join
441 root jur 表示 "发誓，法律" swear, law
442 root juven 表示 "年轻" young
443 root labor 表示 "劳动" labor
444 root laps 表示 "滑，滑走" slip
445 root lat 表示 "拿出，带出" bring out
446 root lav, luv, lut 表示 "洗，冲洗" wash
447 root lect, lig 表示 "选择，收集" choose, gather
448 root lect, leg 表示 "讲，读" speak, read
449 root leg, legis 表示"法律" law
450 root lev, liev 表示"举起，变轻" raise, lighten
451 root liber 表示 "自由"2 free
452 root limin, lim 表示"门槛，限制"8 threshold
453 root line 表示 "直线，线条" line
454 root lingu 表示 "语言"，原意为 "舌头" language
455 root liter 表示 "文字，字母" letter
456 root lith 表示 " 石头" stone
457 root loc 表示 "地方" place
458 root log, logu 表示"说话" speak
459 root logy, ology 表示 "科学，学科" science
460 root long 表示"长" long
461 root loqu, locu 表示 "说话"1 speak
462 root luc, lust 表示"光，照亮" light, shine
463 root lumin 表示 "光" light
464 root lud, lus 表示"玩，戏剧" play
465 root magn 表示 "大" big
466 root man 表示 "手" hand
467 root mari 表示"海洋" sea
468 root mark 表示 "记号，符号" sign
469 root matern, matr 表示"母性，母亲" mother
470 root med, medi 表示"中间" middle
471 root memor 表示"记忆" memory
472 root ment 表示"思考，神智" mind
473 root merg, mers 表示 "沉，没"5 sink
474 root meter, metr, meas, mens 表示 "计量，测量"等 measure
475 root migr 表示 "迁移" remove
476 root min 表示"伸出，突出" project
477 root mini, min 表示"小" small
478 root mir 表示"惊奇; 看" wonder, look
479 root misc 表示"混淆" mix
480 root miss, mit 表示 "送，放出" send, cast
481 root mob 表示 "动"9 move
482 root mod 表示 "方式，模式，风度" mode, manner
483 root mon, monit 表示"警告" warn
484 root morph 表示"形状" form, shape
485 root mort 表示"死" death
486 root mot 表示"运动" move
487 root mount 表示 "登上" ascend
488 root muni 表示 "公共的" public
489 root mut 表示 "改变"7 change
490 root nat 表示 "出生的" born
491 root nav, naut 表示 "船" ship
492 root nect, nex 表示 "连结" bind
493 root neg 表示 "否认" deny
494 root negr, nigr 表示 "黑" black
495 root noc, nox 表示 "伤害, 毒" hurt, poison
496 root nom(y) 表示 "某一领域的知识" a field of knowledge
497 root nomin 表示 "名称, 名字" name
498 root norm 表示 "规则，规范" rule, norm
499 root not 表示 "知道，注意" know
500 root nounce, nunci 表示 "讲话，说出" speak
501 root nov 表示 "新的" new
502 root numer 表示 "数目" number
503 root onym 表示 "名字" nam
504 root oper 表示 "工作"0 work
505 root opt 表示 "选择"8 choose
506 root opt 表示 "视力" sight
507 root ora 表示 "嘴，说" mouth
508 root ori, orig 表示 "升起，开始" rise, begin
509 root ordin 表示 "命令，顺序" order
510 root orn 表示 "装饰" embellish
511 root par 表示 "平等" equal
512 root part, port 表示 "部分，分开" part, divide
513 root pass 表示 "通过" pass through
514 root pass 表示 "感情" feeling
515 root path 表示 "感情，痛苦，病" feeling, suffering, illness
516 root part(i) 表示 "父亲" father
517 root ped 表示 "脚" foot
518 root ped 表示 "儿童"，引申为 "教育" child, education
519 root pel, puls 表示 "驱动，推" drive, push
520 root pen, pun 表示 "惩罚"7 penalty
521 root pend, pens 表示 "悬挂" hang
522 root pend, pens, pond 表示 "称重量, 称银子", 引申为 "花费" weight, expend
523 root peri 表示 "尝试" try
524 root pet 表示 "追求，寻求" seek
525 root petr(o) 表示 "石头" stone
526 root phag 表示 "吃" eat
527 root phil,philo 表示 "爱" love
528 root phob, phobia 表示 "厌恶" dislike
529 root phon 表示 "声音"1 sound
530 root pict 表示 "描画"8 paint
531 root plac 表示 "平静" calm
532 root plat 表示 "平坦" flat
533 root plant 表示 "种植" plant
534 root ple, plen, pli 表示 "满，填满" full, fill
535 root plex 表示 "重叠" fold
536 root plic, ply 表示 "重叠" fold
537 root plor 表示 "喊，哭" cry, weep
538 root point, punct 表示 "点，变尖" point, make sharp
539 root polic, polis, polit 表示 "国家，城市" state, city
540 root pon, pound 表示 "放置" put
541 root popul 表示 "人民" people
542 root port 表示 "拿，运" carry
543 root pos, posit 表示"放" put
544 root prais, preci 表示 "价值" value
545 root prehens, prehend 表示 "抓住" catch
546 root press 表示 "挤压" press
547 root prim 表示"第一，主要的" first, chief
548 root pris 表示, "拿住，抓住" take
549 root priv 表示 "单个"2 single, alone
550 root prob, prov 表示 "测试，证明" test
551 root proper, propri 表示"拥有", 引申为"恰当的" one's own
552 root pugn 表示 "打斗" fight
553 root pur, purg 表示 "纯洁" pure
554 root put 表示 "认为，思考" think
555 root quest, quir, quis, quer 表示"寻求，询问" seek, search
556 root quiet, qui 表示 "静" still
557 root quit 表示 "自由" free
558 root radic 表示 "根" root
559 root range 表示 "排列，顺序" rank
560 root rap, rapt, rav 表示 "捕，夺" snatch
561 root ras, rad 表示 "刮擦" scrape
562 root rect 表示 "正，直" straight, right
563 root rid, ris 表示 "笑" laugh
564 root rod, ros 表示 "咬" bite
565 root rog 表示 "要求，问"0 ask
566 root rot 表示 "轮子，转" wheel
567 root rud 表示"原始，粗野" rude
568 root rupt 表示"断裂" break
569 root sal 表示 "盐" salt
570 root san 表示 "健康的" healthy
571 root sanguin 表示 "血" blood
572 root sat, satis, satur 表示"足够，饱足" enough, full of food
573 root scend, scens, scent 表示 "爬，攀" climb
574 root sci 表示 "知道" know
575 root scrib, script 表示 "写" write
576 root secu, sequ 表示 "跟随" follow
577 root sect, seg 表示 "切，割" cut, divide
578 root sens, sent 表示 "感觉" feel
579 root sen 表示 "老" old
580 root sert 表示 "加入，插入" join, insert
581 root serv 表示 "服务，保持" serve , keep
582 root sid 表示 "坐" sit
583 root sign 表示 "记号，信号"2 mark
584 root simil, simul, sembl 表示 "相类似，一样" alike, same
585 root sinu 表示 "弯曲" bend
586 root sist 表示 "站立" stand
587 root soci 表示 "同伴"，引申为 "社会" companion
588 root sol 表示 "单独" alone
589 root sol 表示 "太阳" sun
590 root solv, solu 表示 "松开" loosen
591 root somn 表示 " 睡眠" sleep
592 root son 表示 "声音" sound
593 root soph 表示 "智慧，聪明" wise
594 root speci 表示 "外观，种类" look, kind
595 root spect, spic 表示 "看" look, see
596 root sper 表示 "希望" hope
597 root spers 表示 "散开" scatter
598 root spir 表示 "呼吸" breathe
599 root spond, spons 表示 "承诺" promise
600 root st, sta, stat, stan, stin 表示 "站，立" stand
601 root stell 表示 "星星" star
602 root still 表示 "小水滴" small drop
603 root stitut, stit 表示 "建立，放" set up, place
604 root sting, stinct, stimul 表示 "刺，刺激" prick
605 root strain, strict, string 表示 "拉紧" tighten
606 root struct 表示 "建立" build
607 root summ 表示 "总，加" add up
608 root sume, sumpt 表示 "拿，取" take
609 root sur 表示 "肯定" sure
610 root tact, tag, tig, ting 表示 "接触" touch
611 root tain, ten, tin 表示 "拿住" hold
612 root tect 表示 "盖上" cover
613 root tele 表示 "远"，引申为"电"，电从远方来。 far
614 root temper, tempor 表示"时间"或时间引起的现象 time
615 root tempt 表示 "尝试" try
616 root tend, tent, tens 表示 "伸展" stretch
617 root tenu 表示 "细，薄" thin
618 root termin 表示 "界限" limit
619 root terr 表示 "土地" earth
620 root test 表示 "测试，证据" test, witness
621 root text 表示 "编织" weave
622 root thesis 表示 "放置" setting
623 root the(o) 表示 "神" god
624 root therm 表示 "热" heat
625 root tim 表示 "害怕" fear
626 root tir 表示 "拉" draw
627 root tom, tomy 表示 "切割" cut
628 root tort 表示 "扭曲" twist
629 root tour, torn 表示 "转" turn
630 root tox 表示 "毒" poison
631 root tract 表示 "拉，拖" draw
632 root treat 表示 "处理" handle
633 root trem 表示 "颤抖" quiver
634 root tribut 表示 "给予" give
635 root trud, trus 表示 "推" push
636 root turb 表示 "搅动" stir
637 root twine 表示 "编织" twine
638 root umbr 表示 "影子" shadow
639 root un, uni 表示 "单一，一个" one
640 root und 表示 "波动" wave
641 root urb 表示 "城市" city
642 root up 表示 "向上" up, over
643 root us, util 表示 "用" use
644 root vac, vacu, van, void 表示 "空" empty
645 root vad, vas 表示 "走"1 go
646 root vag, vagr 表示 "漫游"9 wander
647 root vail, val 表示 "强壮" strong
648 root val, valu 表示 "价值" value
649 root vari, vary 表示 "变化" change
650 root ven, vent 表示 "来" come
651 root venge 表示 "惩罚", 引申为 "报仇" punish
652 root ver 表示 "真实" TRUE
653 root verb 表示 "词语" word
654 root vers, vert 表示 "转" turn
655 root vest 表示 "衣服" clothes
656 root vi, via, vey, voy 表示 "道路" way
657 root vict, vinc 表示 "征服，克服" conquer, overcome
658 root vid, vis 表示 "看" see
659 root viv, vit, vig 表示 "生命" life
660 root voc, vok "叫喊，声音" call, voice
661 root vol, volunt 表示 "意志，意愿" wish, will
662 root volv, volu, volt 表示 "卷，转" roll, turn
663 root vor 表示 "吃" eat
664 root vulg 表示 "人群" people
665 root vuls, vult 表示 "收缩，撕开" pluck, tear
666 root zoo 表示 "动物" animal
667 root abl, abili 表示"能力" able
668 root acro 表示 "顶点，高点" top
669 root agog 表示 "引导" lead
670 root agon 表示 "挣扎、斗争" struggle
671 root alb 表示 "白色" white
672 root alg 表示 "痛" pain
673 root alt 表示 "高" high
674 root ampl 表示 "大" large
675 root anci, antiq 表示 "古老" old
676 root andro 表示 "男人" male, man
677 root arbit(r) 表示 "判断" judge
678 root arc(h) 表示 "弓" bow
679 root arm 表示 "武器" weapon
680 root aug 表示 "增加" increase
681 root balm 表示 "香油" balsam
682 root ban 表示 "禁止" prohibit
683 root bar 表示 "重，压" weight
684 root barr 表示 "棒，栏" stick
685 root bat 表示 "打，击" beat
686 root biblio 表示 "书" book
687 root blanc 表示 "白" white
688 root brace 表示 "两臂" two arms
689 root braid 表示 "扭" twist
690 root bu 表示 "牛" ox
691 root calc 表示 "石头" stone
692 root calori 表示 "热" heat
693 root camp 表示 "田野" field
694 root car, char 表示 "可爱的" dear
695 root card, chart 表示 "纸片" paper
696 root cast 表示 "纯洁" pure
697 root cav 表示 "洞" hole
698 root cens 表示 "判断" judge
699 root chor 表示 "歌，舞" dance, sing
700 root chrom 表示 "颜色" color
701 root cil(i) 表示 "召集" call
702 root civ 表示 "公民" citizen
703 root coct 表示 "煮，调配" cook
704 root cogn 表示 "知道" know
705 root com 表示 "宴会" banquet
706 root commod 表示 "方便" convenient
707 root cond 表示 "藏" hide
708 root corn 表示 "角" horn
709 root cosm(o) 表示 " 世界，宇宙" world
710 root crit, cris 表示 "判断，分辩" judge, discern
711 root cryo 表示 "冷，冻" cold
712 root culp 表示 "错，罪" fault
713 root cuss 表示 "摇动" shake
714 root custom 表示 "习惯" habit
715 root cyn 表示 "狗" dog
716 root demn 表示 "伤害" harm
717 root dens 表示 "变浓厚" make thick
718 root dexter 表示 "右边" right
719 root di 表示 "日，日子" day
720 root dole 表示 "悲伤" grieve
721 root dom 表示 "屋，家" house
722 root dorm 表示 "睡眠" sleep
723 root dox 表示 "观点" opinion
724 root draw 表示 "拉" pull
725 root drom 表示 "跑" run
726 root ed 表示 "吃" eat
727 root ego 表示 "我，自已" I
728 root emper, imper 表示 "命令，统治" command
729 root (a)esthet 表示 "感觉" feeling
730 root extr(e), exter 表示 "出去" out
731 root fabric 表示 "制作" make
732 root feder 表示 "联盟" league
733 root fend 表示 "打击" strike
734 root fess 表示 "说" speak
735 root fest 表示 "仇恨" hostile
736 root fest 表示 "节日" feast
737 root fil 表示 "线条" thread
738 root firm 表示 "坚定" firm
739 root fix 表示 "固定" fix
740 root flat 表示 "吹" blow
741 root foli 表示 "树叶" leaf
742 root fortu 表示 "运气" luck
743 root front 表示 "前额" forehead
744 root fum 表示 "烟" smoke
745 root found, fund 表示 "基础" base
746 root funct 表示 "活动" perform
747 root gam 表示 "婚姻" marriage
748 root garn 表示 "装饰，供应" furnish
749 root germ 表示 "种子" seed
750 root glaci 表示 "冰" ice
751 root gloss, glot 表示"舌头，引申为词语" tongue
752 root gran 表示 "颗粒" grain
753 root hal 表示 "呼吸" breathe
754 root haust 表示 "抽水" draw water
755 root hav 表示 "拥有" possess
756 root head 表示 "头" head
757 root heli(o) 表示 "太阳" sun
758 root helic 表示"螺旋" spiral
759 root hilar 表示 "高兴" glad
760 root hor(r) 表示 "颤抖，害怕" shudder, dread
761 root hort 表示"鼓励" encourage
762 root hospit, host 表示 "客人" guest
763 root hypno 表示 "睡眠" sleep
764 root idol 表示 "形象，偶像" image
765 root imag, imit 表示 "想像，相像" imagine, likeness
766 root insul 表示 "岛屿" island
767 root integr 表示 "完整" whole
768 root joc 表示 "笑话" joke
769 root journ 表示 "日期" day
770 root jug 表示 "牛轭" yoke
771 root lact 表示 "奶，乳" milk
772 root langu 表示 "虚弱" faint
773 root lapid 表示 "石头" stone
774 root later 表示 "边" side
775 root lax 表示 "松" loose
776 root lex，lexic 表示词汇 word, speech
777 root libr 表示 "书" book
778 root licen 表示 "允许" allow
779 root lic 表示 "引诱" allure
780 root linqu 表示 "离开" leave
781 root lips 表示 "离开" leave
782 root liqu 表示 "湿" wet
783 root lun 表示 "月亮" moon
784 root lustr 表示 "光亮" light
785 root lys, lysis 表示"裂开，分解" break down
786 root mach, mech 表示 "机器" machine
787 root maj 表示 "大，伟大" great
788 root man, main 表示 "逗留" stay
789 root mand 表示 "命令" order
790 root merc, merch 表示 "交易" trade
791 root mend 表示 "改错" free from fault
792 root milit 表示 "兵" soldier
793 root mis(o) 表示 "恨" hate
794 root miser 表示"可怜的" wretched
795 root mnes, mnem 表示"记忆" remember
796 root monstr 表示 "显示" show
797 root moll 表示"软" soft
798 root mor 表示"道德" moral
799 root mord, mors 表示 "咬" bite
800 root mur 表示 "墙壁" wall
801 root mus 来自希腊神话"缪斯"女神，是文艺音乐女神，所以有"娱乐"的意思 muse
802 root neur 表示 "神经" nerve
803 root nihil 表示 "无，不存在" nothing
804 root noct 表示 "夜晚" night
805 root nost 表示"家" home
806 root null 表示 "没有" none
807 root nutri 表示 "营养" nourish
808 root od 表示"歌曲" song
809 root oner 表示 "负担" load
810 root optim 表示 "最好" best
811 root orbit 表示 "圆圈" circle
812 root oss 表示 "骨头" bone
813 root ot(o) 表示 "耳朵" ear
814 root pact 表示 "紧的" fastened
815 root palp 表示 "感觉、摸" feel
816 root par 表示 "准备" get ready
817 root par 表示 "生产，生出孩子" bring forth
818 root parl 表示 "说话" speak
819 root par, pear 表示 "看见" come in sight
820 root phan 表示 "显示" show
821 root phor 表示"带来" bring
822 root photo 表示 "光" light
823 root phyt(o) 表示 "植物" plant
824 root pisc 表示 "鱼" fish
825 root place 表示 "放，地方" place
826 root plaint 表示 "抱怨" complain
827 root plaud 表示 "鼓掌" clap hands
828 root plod 表示"大声音" big noise
829 root ploy 表示"用、参与" use, involve
830 root plumb 表示 "铅" lead
831 root porc 表示 "猪" pig
832 root post 表示 "后面" behind
833 root pot 表示 "喝" drink
834 root poten 表示 "有力的" powerful
835 root proach 表示 "接近" near
836 root prol 表示 "后代，子孙" offspring
837 root proxim 表示"接近，靠近" close, near
838 root pud 表示 "感到羞耻" feel shame
839 root putr 表示 "腐烂的" rotten
840 root quaint 表示 "知道" know
841 root rage 表示 "疯狂" mad
842 root rat 表示 "计算" calculate
843 root rept 表示 "爬" creep
844 root rend 表示"给" give
845 root rhythm 表示"节奏" rhythm
846 root robor 表示 "力量" strength
847 root rub 表示 "红" red
848 root rust, rur 表示 "农村" country
849 root sacr 表示 "神圣" holy
850 root salv, save 表示 "救助" save
851 root sag 表示 "知道" know
852 root sal 表示 "跳" leap
853 root sanct 表示 "神圣" holy
854 root semin 表示 "种子" seed
855 root serr 表示 "锯子" saw
856 root set 表示 "安置好" fix
857 root sever 表示 "诚恳" earnest
858 root sight 表示 "眼光" vision
859 root som 表赤"身体" body
860 root sort 表示 "种类" kind
861 root spin 表示 "刺" thorn
862 root splend 表示 "发光" shine
863 root stall 表示 "放" place
864 root stigma 表示 "标志, 斑点" mark
865 root strat 表示"扩散"，引申为"层次" spread out
866 root sult 表示 "跳" leap
867 root surg 表示 "升起" rise
868 root tach 表示 "钉子" nail
869 root tail 表示 "剪，割" cut
870 root tard 表示 "慢" slow
871 root techn 表示"技术，能力" skill, ability
872 root temn, tempt 表示 "蔑视" scorn
873 root terr 表示 "恐，怕" frighten
874 root troph 表示"营养" nutrition
875 root toler 表示 "容忍" endure
876 root touch 表示 "摸，碰" touch
877 root trench 表示 "切，割" cut
878 root trop 表示 "转" turn
879 root tru 表示 "相信，真实" TRUE
880 root trit 表示 "磨擦" rub
881 root tut, tuit 表示 "保护" protect
882 root typ 表示 "模式，形状" type
883 root urin, ur 表示 "尿" urine
884 root vapor 表示 "蒸汽" steam
885 root veil 表示 "盖上" cover
886 root vent 表示 "风" wind
887 root vestig 表示 "脚印, 踪迹" footprint, track
888 root vibr 表示 "摇摆" swing
889 root vid, vis 表示 "分开" separate
890 root vil 表示 "卑劣的" base
891 root vir 表示 "男人" man
892 root vot 表示 "发誓" vow
893 root war 表示 "注视" watch
894 root zeal 表示 "热心" ardor
895 misc abol 消除 do away with
896 misc accoutr 穿着 dress
897 misc acm 顶端 top
898 misc adip 肥 fat
899 misc adjut 帮助 assist
900 misc advant 前面 ahead
901 misc agger 堆积 heap
902 misc alacr 迅速 swift
903 misc ald 老 old
904 misc alesc 成长 grow
905 misc amen 愉快 pleasant
906 misc amic 朋友 friend
907 misc angu 苦恼 distress
908 misc anth 花 flower
909 misc anx 苦恼 distress
910 misc ap 蜜蜂 bee
911 misc aper 开 open
912 misc apex 顶峰 summit
913 misc aquil 鹰 eagle
914 misc ar 犁地 plow
915 misc ar 干 dry
916 misc arbor 树 tree
917 misc archi 主要的 chief
918 misc arct 熊 bear
919 misc arct 在大熊星座下
920 misc ard ant相反+arctic burn
921 misc ardu 困难 difficult
922 misc aren 沙 sand
923 misc arom 香料 spice
924 misc arter 管道 pipe
925 misc articul 关节 joint
926 misc asin 驴子 ass
927 misc asper 粗糙 rough
928 misc asthm 喘气 panting
929 misc athl 比赛 contest
930 misc atmo 蒸汽 vapor
931 misc atroc 残酷 cruel
932 misc aur 金 gold
933 misc aur 耳朵 ear
934 misc auster 严重的 severe
935 misc austr 南方 south
936 misc auxili 帮助 help
937 misc aval 向下 downward
938 misc avar 贪婪 greedy
939 misc axi 有价值 worthy
940 misc badin 说笑 jest
941 misc bank 长椅 bench
942 misc bank 由柜台转化而来
943 misc barb bank椅子→柜台+rupt断→柜台断了→破产 beard
944 misc barbar 胡说 stammer
945 misc barr 栅栏 bar
946 misc beat 有福的 blessed
947 misc bell 美好 fine
948 misc bever 喝 drink
949 misc bey 期待 expect
950 misc bias 斜 slant
951 misc bib 喝 drink
952 misc blas 毁坏 damage
953 misc bleac 白的 pale
954 misc blem 弄脏 stain
955 misc bombast 棉花 cotton
956 misc bon 好 good
957 misc bor 居民 dweller
958 misc bord 边 side
959 misc bosc 喂 feed
960 misc botan 草 herb
961 misc bouch 嘴 mouth
962 misc bov 牛 ox
963 misc brack 呕 vomit
964 misc broch 刺，缝 pierce
965 misc bry 发芽 sprout
966 misc burl 嘲笑 mockery
967 misc byss 底 bottom
968 misc cadaver a没有+byss→没有底 corpse
969 misc cal 美丽 beautiful
970 misc calam 不幸 misfortune
971 misc calend 月第一天 first day
972 misc call 硬皮 hard skin
973 misc can 狗 dog
974 misc capr 山羊 goat
975 misc caps 盒子 box
976 misc car 亲爱 dear
977 misc carcer 监狱 prison
978 misc caric 过分 load
979 misc caten 链 chain
980 misc cathar 纯洁 pure
981 misc cathol 普通的 general
982 misc caul 根，杆 stem
983 misc caust 烧 burn
984 misc caval 马 horse
985 misc ceal 藏 hide
986 misc cel 天空 heaven
987 misc celebr 荣誉 honor
988 misc celib 单个 single
989 misc cem 睡 sleep
990 misc cephal 头 head
991 misc ceram 陶土 earth
992 misc cerebr 脑 brain
993 misc cess 停止 stop
994 misc chame 地 ground
995 misc cher 亲切 dear
996 misc chondr 软骨 cartilage
997 misc chrys 金色 golden
998 misc ciner 灰 ash
999 misc cinct 捆 bind
1000 misc cist 盒子 box
1001 misc cla 打破 break
1002 misc clandestin 秘密 secret
1003 misc clys 猛冲 dash
1004 misc cogit 想 think
1005 misc col 排水 strain
1006 misc coll 脖子 neck
1007 misc com 睡 sleep
1008 misc contamin 污染 pollute
1009 misc cop 丰富 abundance
1010 misc cori 皮 skin
1011 misc corrig 改正 correct
1012 misc corusc 发光 glitter
1013 misc cost 旁边 side
1014 misc cras 混合 mixing
1015 misc crastin 明天 tomorrow
1016 misc creas 肉 flesh
1017 misc crepit 爆裂 burst
1018 misc crimin 罪 crime
1019 misc crud 生的 raw
1020 misc crust 外壳 shell
1021 misc culin 厨房 kitchen
1022 misc culmin 顶 top
1023 misc cumul 堆积 heap
1024 misc cup 渴望 desire
1025 misc curt 短 short
1026 misc custod 看护 guard
1027 misc cylind 卷 roll
1028 misc dama 征服 conquer
1029 misc de 神 god
1030 misc deb 欠债 owe
1031 misc debil 虚弱 weak
1032 misc deleter 毁坏者 destroyer
1033 misc delect 愉快 delight
1034 misc delir 疯 mad
1035 misc deterior 更坏 worse
1036 misc didact 教 teach
1037 misc digit 手指 finger
1038 misc dissip 分散 disperse
1039 misc dogm 观点 opinion
1040 misc domin 主人 lord
1041 misc domit 驯服 tame
1042 misc dors 背 back
1043 misc dot 给 give
1044 misc dra 表演 perform
1045 misc dubi 怀疑 doubtful
1046 misc ebri 醉 drunken
1047 misc eleg 悲伤 lament
1048 misc emul 平等 equal
1049 misc ent 存在 being
1050 misc entom 昆虫 insect
1051 misc equ 马 horse
1052 misc ero 爱 love
1053 misc ert 直 erect
1054 misc escal 梯子 ladder
1055 misc esoter 内在 inner
1056 misc estim 价值 value
1057 misc ethn 民族 nation
1058 misc etymo 真的 TRUE
1059 misc fam 饿 hunger
1060 misc fan 庙 temple
1061 misc fascin 迷住 enchant
1062 misc fatig 疲倦 weary
1063 misc fatu 笨 silly
1064 misc febr 烧 fever
1065 misc fecund 果实 fruit
1066 misc felic 幸福 happy
1067 misc femin 女人 woman
1068 misc fer 野 wild
1069 misc ferr 铁 iron
1070 misc fisc 钱包 purse
1071 misc fiss 分裂 split
1072 misc flagell 鞭子 whip
1073 misc fluctu 波浪 wave
1074 misc for 打孔 bore
1075 misc frater 兄弟 brother
1076 misc fresc 新鲜 fresh
1077 misc fruct 果实 fruit
1078 misc fulg 发光 shine
1079 misc fulmin 雷声 thunder
1080 misc furt 偷 steal
1081 misc furc 分叉 fork
1082 misc fusc 黑的 dark
1083 misc gain 反对 against
1084 misc galax 乳 milk
1085 misc gamb 腿 leg
1086 misc garr 唠叨 chatter
1087 misc gastr 胃 stomach
1088 misc genu 膝盖 knee
1089 misc ger 带有 bear
1090 misc glomer 球 ball
1091 misc glut 吞吃 devour
1092 misc gnomin 名声 name
1093 misc gorg 喉 throat
1094 misc gross 大 great
1095 misc gymn 裸体的 naked
1096 misc harm 适合 fitting
1097 misc haught 高 high
1098 misc hein 可恨的 odious
1099 misc hemo 血 blood
1100 misc hemer 一天 day
1101 misc hom 人 man
1102 misc host 敌人 enemy
1103 misc hum 湿 moist
1104 misc hypn 睡 sleep
1105 misc icon 形像 image
1106 misc iden 相同 same
1107 misc ign 点火 fire
1108 misc incip 开始 begin
1109 misc initi 开始 beginning
1110 misc intim 内心的 inmost
1111 misc isol 岛 island
1112 misc isthm 狭道 narrow pass
1113 misc jac 躺 lie
1114 misc jacul 标枪 javelin
1115 misc jubil n. 欢庆，欢腾 shout of joy jubilation
1116 misc lacer 撕开 torn
1117 misc lass 倦 weary
1118 misc lat 宽 wide
1119 misc laud 赞扬 praise
1120 misc lemma 争论 argument
1121 misc lent 松 loose
1122 misc leth 遗忘 oblivion
1123 misc lexi 词 word
1124 misc lig 捆绑 bind
1125 misc lign 木头 wood
1126 misc loft 天空 sky
1127 misc lop 跑 run
1128 misc lubric 滑 slip
1129 misc luc 灯 light
1130 misc lug 悲伤 mourn
1131 misc lup 狼 wolf
1132 misc lyr 笛子 lute
1133 misc maci 瘦 lean
1134 misc macul 斑点 spot
1135 misc mall 锤子 hammer
1136 misc mamm 奶 breast
1137 misc mascul 雄性 male
1138 misc mastic 嚼 chew
1139 misc matin 早上 morning
1140 misc me 走 go
1141 misc medit 思考 ponder
1142 misc medl 混合 mix
1143 misc mell 蜜 honey
1144 misc melan 黑 black
1145 misc melior 更好 better
1146 misc mendic 乞讨 beg
1147 misc mer 湖 lake
1148 misc mol 饭 meal
1149 misc mol 堆 heap
1150 misc morb 病 disease
1151 misc myth 寓言 fable
1152 misc narc 麻木 numb
1153 misc nebul 云 cloud
1154 misc nec 杀 kill
1155 misc negat 否认 deny
1156 misc nom 牧场 pasture
1157 misc nu 点头 nod
1158 misc nugator 烦事 trifler
1159 misc numism 钱币 coin
1160 misc nupti 婚礼 wedding
1161 misc obed 服从 obey
1162 misc obes 肥 fat
1163 misc obit 死 death
1164 misc obliv 忘记 forget
1165 misc obsol 腐烂 decay
1166 misc ocul 眼睛 eye
1167 misc od 道路 road
1168 misc odi 恨 hate
1169 misc odyn 痛 pain
1170 misc ole 油 oil
1171 misc olfact 味 scent
1172 misc omin 预兆 omen
1173 misc opl 盔甲 armor
1174 misc ornith 鸟 bird
1175 misc oscul 吻 kiss
1176 misc ostens 出现 appear
1177 misc ostrac 瓦片 tile
1178 misc ov 叫喊 shout
1179 misc pachy 厚 thick
1180 misc pan 面包 bread
1181 misc pat 走 walk
1182 misc phem 讲话 speech
1183 misc phen 显示 show
1184 misc pher 带来 bring
1185 misc ping 系紧 fasten
1186 misc pinn 顶 peak
1187 misc plais 高兴 please
1188 misc plas 模式 mold
1189 misc pleb 人们 people
1190 misc pleth 挤，多 crowd
1191 misc pli 折，弯 fold
1192 misc plum 羽毛 feather
1193 misc pneumon 肺 lung
1194 misc pol 光滑 smooth
1195 misc postul 要求 demand
1196 misc pragm 行为 deed
1197 misc psych 灵魂 soul
1198 misc pud 害羞 shame
1199 misc puer 男孩 boy
1200 misc pulver 灰尘 dust
1201 misc pusill 卑微的 mean
1202 misc pyr 火 fire
1203 misc quarant 四十 forty
1204 misc quer 抱怨 complain
1205 misc rab 怒 rage
1206 misc radi 光线 ray
1207 misc ram 枝 branch
1208 misc reg 国王 king
1209 misc regn 王朝 reign
1210 misc remn 留下 remain
1211 misc rest 停留 stay
1212 misc retic 安静 silent
1213 misc rever 敬畏 awe
1214 misc rhe 流 flow
1215 misc rhin 鼻子 nose
1216 misc riv 河流 stream
1217 misc rug 皱 wrinkle
1218 misc sacchar 糖 sugar
1219 misc salu 健康 health
1220 misc sanat 治疗 heal
1221 misc sap 味道 taste
1222 misc sarc 肉 flesh
1223 misc scintill 火花 spark
1224 misc sembl 相像 be like
1225 misc sept 烂 rotten
1226 misc sibil 咝咝声 hiss
1227 misc sicc 干 dry
1228 misc sider 星星 star
1229 misc splend 闪光 shine
1230 misc stetho 胸 chest
1231 misc su 跟从 follow
1232 misc succ 果汁 juice
1233 misc sud 汗 sweat
1234 misc sumptu 花费 expense
1235 misc tabul 平板 plank
1236 misc taph 墓 tomb
1237 misc tauto 相同 same
1238 misc templ 庙 temple
1239 misc torn 转 turn
1240 misc torp 麻木 numb
1241 misc torr 干 dry
1242 misc tourn 转 turn
1243 misc trepid 颤抖 trembling
1244 misc tum 肿 swell
1245 misc uber 果实 fruitful
1246 misc uxor 老婆 wife
1247 misc vale 再见 farewell
1248 misc veh 带来 carry
1249 misc velop 盖上 cover
1250 misc verd 绿 green
1251 misc veter 老 old
1252 misc viti 错误 fault
1253 misc vituper 责备 blame
1254 misc zym 发酵 ferment