1. Instead of spending your vacation on a bus, in a hotel or sitting on the beach, you may want to try hiking.(Reading)
句子中短语介词instead of ...表示“取代……;而不是……”,后面跟名词、代词、-ing形式或介词短语等;而instead是副词,表示“相反,而”。如:
Instead of doing his homework, Bingbing watched TV in his room.
=Bingbing didn’t do his homework in his room. Instead, he watched TV.
2. The name “whitewater” comes from the fact that the water in these streams and rivers looks white when it moves quickly.(Reading)
句子中that the water in these streams and rivers looks white when it moves quickly是一个同位语从句,用于说明名词fact的具体内容。英语中一些名词, 如fact, information, idea, advice, suggestion, opinion, plan, demand, reason等后面常可以跟同位语从句来说明或解释前面某名词所包含的内容。如:
She showed us her idea at the meeting that she would refuse to join the new party.
The government has made the plan that we’ll send up Shenzhou VI Spaceship in two or three years.
3. Eco-travel is a way to find out what can be done to help animals and plants as well as people. (Integrating Skills)
句中what can be done是一宾语从句, 相当于what people can do, 作短语动词find out的宾语;而动词不定式短语to help animals and plants as well as people是句子的目的状语。英语中当不需要提及谓语动作的执行者时,通常用被动语态形式来表达。如:
Computers have widely been used in different kinds of fields in modern society.
The cause of that serious accident will be looked into carefully.
as well as 此处意为“除……之外还, 和, 也”,常用来连接两个相同成分, 强调前者。注意:当其连接两个主语时,谓语动词的数应与前一个主语保持一致。如:
My friend, Bill, is good at science as well as arts at school.
Li Lei as well as his friends is going boating next Sunday.