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[复习大纲]同步知识讲与练

LEARNING.SOHU.COM    2005年8月15日14:20   [ 江苏 陈梅 ]  来源:[ 《考试》高考版 ] 
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  一、重点单词

  1. accustomed adj.通常的, 习惯的, 按照风俗习惯的

  例1 Her accustomed smile makes her popular in the company. 她惯常的微笑使她在公司很受欢迎。

  [拓展] be/become accustomed to=be used to习惯于某事

  例2 The little boy is accustomed to hard work at his stepmother’s home. 在继母家里小男孩已习惯了干累活。

  例3 I’m not accustomed to getting up so early to do morning exercise. 我不习惯这么早起床进行晨练。

  [考题例析] The family moved to the south from the north years ago, and now they are _____to hot and wet weather.

  A. suitable B. accustomed

  C. familiar D. agreeable

  解析 选B suitable 适合的;agreeable使人愉快的, 惬意的, 适合的; familiar熟悉的。根据前半句 “从北方移居到南方数年”,可推测是习惯了南方的天气。所以用B最合乎题意。

  2. add vt. 增加, 添加, 计算……总和, 补充说, 又说vi. 加, 加起来, 增添, 做加法

  例4 I should like to add that we are pleased with the test result. 我还要补充说一下,我们对测试结果表示满意。

  [拓展] add up加算,合计;合乎情理,合情合理;add up to 总计为,总数达;add to增添

  例5 He wrote down the weight of each stone and then added up all the weights.他把每一块石头的重量记下来,然后把所有的重量加在一起。

  例6 The various facts in their report just don’t add up. 他们报告中的各方面材料根本串不起来。

  [考题例析] Please ____ the numbers and I’m sure they will ____ more than 1000.

  A. add up; add B. add up; add up

  C. add up; add up to D. add; add up

  解析 选C 根据题意,第一空为“将数字相加”,用add或add up都可以;第二空显然是得出的总数,应选用add up to“加起来”。

  3. proper adj. 适当的, 正确的,正当的

  例7 You aren’t wearing proper clothes for this hot weather. 这么热的天气,你穿的衣服不合适。

  [派生] properly adv.适当地;正确地

  例8 You haven’t done the job properly, you’ll have to do it again. 你没有做对这件工作,你得重做。

  [考题例析] I don’t think the boy is too small to look after the dog ____.

  A. correctly B. exactly

  C. properly D. accurately

  解析 选C correctly, exactly, accurately三个选项的意思都强调 “准确无误地”,properly强调适当。

  4. admit许可进入,准许进入;容纳, 容许;承认;供认

  例9 This ticket admits two people to the football match. 这张票可供两人入场看足球赛。

  例10 He never admits that he is wrong.他从不承认自己错了。

  【辨析】 admit, acknowledge, confess均表“承认”。

  admit通常指因屈服于外力或受自己良心或判断的指使而承认某事物的真实性;

  例11 I admit that he is right. 我承认他是对的。

  acknowledge指对某事物的存在或真实性作公开承认;

  例12 They now have acknowledged defeat. 他们现在承认失败了。

  confess指对本身不利或犯罪事实的承认;

  例13 I confess I’m a coward.我承认我是个懦夫。

  [考题例析] Only those with special talent are ___ to the newly built art school.

  A. accepted B. received

  C. admitted D. permitted

  解析 选C学校招生通常用admit/be admitted to。

  5. abundant adj. 丰富的, 充裕的

  例14 Some small countries are very rich because of abundant petroleum deposits.一些小国家因为石油储量丰富而非常富有。

  [派生] abundance n. 丰富, 大量

  [拓展] in abundance, be abundant in =be rich in富于,含有丰富的……

  例15 The area was abundant in natural resources last century. 这个地区上个世纪自然资源丰富。

  [考题例析] The war broke out as a result of seizing the right to explore the coast_____ oil.

  A. abundant in B. was abundant in

  C. rich with D. poor in

  解析 选A abundant in作the coast的定语;B缺关系代词that或which;C错误,应用in;D不符句意。

  6. gain n. 营利,获利,收益;增加,增进; (指钟表)快

  例16 He quickly gained experience.他很快就有经验了。

  例17 Only after ten years in the country did she gain her citizenship.她在这个国家住了十年后才取得了公民身份。

  [派生] gainer获利者,获胜者;gainful有利益的,有报酬的;gainings收入,收益

  [拓展] gain on迫近, 赶上;gain over说服(某人);gain an advantage over占优势,占上风;gain strength恢复体力

  例18 He gained on the other runners in the race and finished first. 比赛中他赶上了其他的选手,最后跑了第一。

  例19 The little thin girl is gaining advantage over the former champion. 瘦小的女孩渐渐占了前冠军的上风。

  [考题例析] The father warns his son shall____ nothing if he refuses to marry the rich man’s daughter.

  A. seize B. earn

  C. grasp D. gain

  解析 选D 根据句意“如果儿子不与富家女结婚,将一无所获。” seize占领,抓住,理解;earn赚,得到名声,地位等;grasp意思为理解,把握;gain(通过努力)获得,获得物。显然只有D符合句意。

  7. acquire获得, 学到

  例20 She acquired a knowledge of the English by careful study. 她认真学习而精通英语。

  [派生] acquired adj. 后天的,习得性的;acquisition n. 获得,达到

  [辨析] get, obtain, acquire均指获得。

  get是通用词,指以某种方式或手段得到某种东西,这东西可能是他需要或企图获得的,也许不是;

  例21 I got a new car. 我得到一部新车。

  obtain指努力工作或奋力而得到所需要的东西;

  例22 I obtained permission to go. 我获准离去。

  acquire强调经过自己的努力而获得某物;

  例23 I acquired a reading knowledge of Japanese.我学会了如何读日语。

  [考题例析] Our teacher is always telling us to improve our methods of studying to ____ a good knowledge of every subject.

  A. gains B. acquire

  C. achieve D. obtain

  解析 选B gain多指财物的增加; achieve多指取得成就、进步等;obtain多指要获得的财物;acquire多指获得知识、习惯等。

  8. occupy vt. 占,占用, 占领,占据

  例24 When I came back, I found a stranger had occupied my seat by the window. 当我回来时,我发现我窗口的座位已被陌生人占去了。

  [派生] occupied adj. 在使用中,已占用;occupation占领,职业,占有(房屋等)期间

  [拓展] be occupied in doing/with sth忙于……

  例25 My uncle is occupied in building his own house. 我叔叔在忙于建他自己的房子。

  [考题例析] The playground ______ by the construction team was returned to the students at last.

  A. possessed B. owned

  C. conquered D. occupied

  解析 选D 阅读题干可知操场属于学生活动场所,工程队应该是占用。possess拥有(强调所有权);own归某人所有(强调所属权);conquer征服,战胜;三者都不符题意。

  9. stick n. 柴枝,小树枝;手杖,拐杖

  例26 We pick up dry sticks to make a fire. 我们拣干柴枝来生火。

  例27 The old man walked leaning on a stick. 老人拄着拐杖走路。

  [拓展] stick by(尤指在逆境中)继续支持/忠于某人;stick at坚持不懈;stick to坚持,不放弃

  例28 His wife stuck by him in good times and bad. 无论境遇好坏他的妻子都对他忠贞不渝。

  例29 If we stick at it, we should finish the work today. 如果我们接着干下去,今天就能把工作做完。

  [考题例析] No matter what people said, Edison _____ his idea of inventing the electrical light.

  A. keep up B. stick to

  C. carry out D. insist on

  解析 选B keep up保持某种状态;carry out执行,实施;insist on坚持干某事,后面常接ing形式;相比较之下,可知答案应是B。

  10. anxious adj. 忧虑的;渴望的 焦虑的; 不安的

  例30 We are all anxious about/for his safety. 我们都为他的安全而忧虑。

  例31 He is anxious to enter for the competition. 他很想去参加比赛。

  [派生] anxiety n.忧虑;焦虑;不安

  [拓展] be anxious for渴望,后接所渴望之物;

  例32 He is anxious for her news. 他渴望知道她的消息。

  be anxious about指人;

  例33 Her mother is anxious about her. 她母亲挂念她。

  be/become anxious at指事或物;

  例34 He became anxious at her delay.他对她的延迟渐感不安。

  [辨析]anxious, eager, keen均有“渴望”之意。

  anxious着重于失望或不能获得所希冀之物的顾虑;

  例35 They were anxious to do their best. 他们渴望着能表现得最好。(恐怕做不好)

  eager表示因想得到某物或做某事而感到兴奋或不耐;

  例36 The boys are eager to start the football game.孩子们渴望着开始足球赛。

  keen表示由极大的兴趣或欲念驱使而作热心的行动;

  例37 They were keen to get the works done.他们急于要做完那个工作。

  [考题例析] As her baby has got a fever, the mother was _____ to hear the bell indicating the end of the day’s work.

  A. nervous B. worried

  C. hurried D. anxious

  解析 选D nervous紧张不安的;worried闷闷不乐的,担忧的;hurried匆忙的, 仓促的。根据空格后的hear the bell,可知母亲盼望下班的心情,并非对孩子生病的感受,所以用be anxious to do表示渴望想听到下班的铃声。

  11. risk vt.冒着……的危险;n.冒险, 风险

  例38 There is a risk of fire when people smoke in the bush. 人们在丛林吸烟有发生火灾的危险。

  例39 He took a risk when he crossed the old bridge. 他冒险过这座旧桥。

  [拓展] at risk有危险;take risks(take a risk)=run risks冒着……的危险

  例40 Several children at risk after eating poisonous soybean milk. 喝了有毒的豆浆,好几个孩子有生命危险。

  例41 They took risks in going through the forest with tigers. 他们冒险穿过了有老虎的森林。

  [考题例析] While he thinks of the ____ of failure, he has made up his mind to carry out the plan.

  A. fortune B. worry

  C. risk D. pressure

  解析 选C fortune运气;worry担心;pressure压力。while意思为“虽然”,结合主句中“he made up his mind to…”可知是冒着失败的危险实施计划。

  12. abuse n.辱骂,凌辱;滥用,妄用;v.滥用,虐待,辱骂

  [派生] abusive adj.辱骂的;侮辱的;口出恶言的

  例42 I couldn’t believe my ears when a stream of abuse came from his lips. 他说一连串粗话时我真不敢相信我的耳朵。

  例43 A number of officials were arrested because of the abuse of privilege. 许多官员因滥用特权被逮捕。

  [考题例析] Whoever ____ his authority and high position for personal gain against law will be punished by law.

  A. takes B. employs

  C. keeps D. abuses

  解析 选D abuse one’s authority and high position意思为“滥用职权”。其它不符此搭配。

  13. allowance n. 津贴;补助;零花钱

  例44 The new salesman wonders whether the company offers travelling allowance. 新销售员不知公司是否提供出差津贴。

  [拓展] make allowance for体谅,照顾某人

  例45 You’d better make allowance for your husband, because he has been ill.你最好体谅你丈夫,因为他一直生病。

  [考题例析] Proper ____ can help children learn how to spend money.

  A. income B. allowance

  C. fare D. money

  解析 选B income “收入”与孩子身份不合;fare车费;money “钱”的总称,与proper搭配不当;allowance常指因某一特殊目的而给予某人的钱。

  14. consult vt. 参考;查阅;咨询;商量

  例46 You may consult the firm by telephoning the hotline. 你可以拨打热线电话询问公司的事。

  例47 I must consult my lawyer on this matter. 这件事我必须与律师商量一下。

  [派生] consultation请教, 咨询;consultant顾问, 咨询者;consultative咨询的

  [拓展] consult with商议,与……交换意见

  例48 I decided which course to study after I consulted with my head teacher. 我与班主任交换意见之后决定了所学课程。

  [考题例析] I usually ___ the content of the magazine to choose the topic that interests me.

  A. check B. instruct

  C. consult D. introduce

  解析 选C check 检查;核对;instruct教导,指示;

  introduce介绍,引进, 提出。理解各词组着重的含义,只有consult有“查阅”的意思。

  15. significance n. 重要; 意义;价值

  例 49 What is the significance of this speech? 这个讲话有什么意义?

  [派生] significant adj.具有特殊意义的; 意味深长的

  [辨析] significant, expressive, suggestive均指意味深长的。

  expressive着重于“以一种极为清楚或生动的方法表示所描述的意义或情景”;

  例50 She gave an expressive smile. 她微笑着表示她的意思。

  suggestive指“以间接方法表示意义的”,例如暗示或只表明意义的一部分;

  例51 The teacher gave an interesting and suggestive list of composition topics.老师提出了一张有趣而带有提示性的作文题目表。

  significant着重于“含有意义的”,此意或经表明或仅暗指而已;

  例52 Graduation Day is a significant day in every student’s life. 毕业日是每个学生生活中富有意义的一天。

  [考题例析] The __for college students of doing a part-time job means more than money and experience.

  A. suggestion B. preference

  C. significance D. expression

  解析 选C suggestion建议;preference偏好; significance重要性;expression表达。根据句中means more than money and experience (不仅在于钱和经验)可推得只有C符合句意。

  16. devotion热爱, 投入,奉献

  例53 The devotion of too much time to sports leaves too little time for studying. 把过多的时间用于体育运动就使用于学习的时间太少了。

  [派生] devote vt. 热爱, 投入;devoted adj.忠诚的;挚爱的;喜欢的

  [拓展] devote…to献身;专心于……; be devoted to 热爱, 深爱

  例54 He devoted all his life to inventing new machines. 他把他的一生都用在发明新机器上了。

  [考题例析] ____ to his mother, he has looked after her for three years.

  A. To devote   B. Devoting

  C. Devoted   D. Devote

  解析 选C devoted此时意思为“深爱着”, 表示原因。To devote不定式表示目的;Devoting动名词形式强调动作,表示时间或原因;Devote原形动词不可引导状语部分。

  17. furnish vt.布置家具;配备家具

  例 55 She rents a furnished flat.她租了一套备有家具的单元房。

  例56 The room was furnished with the simplest essentials, a bed, a chair and a table.房间里只布置了最简单的必需品,一张床、一把椅子和一张桌子。

  [派生] furniture n. 家具

  [辨析] furnish和equip都含有“供应、供给”的意思。

  furnish通常指供给家具之类的生活必需品;

  例57 The poor couple furnished their bedroom with only a small bed.可怜的夫妇只在卧室放了张小床。

  equip着重于提供必需的器具,装备,为工作提供方便;

  例58 The office building will be equipped with TV and air conditioners.

  [考题例析] The new couple intend to ____ their new room with modern _____.

  A. equip; furnitures B. furnish; furnitures

  C. furnish; furniture D. equip; furniture

  解析 选C 置办家具通常同furnish,furniture为不可数名词。

  18. incident n. 事情,小事件

  例59 Were there any exciting incidents during your journey? 你们在旅行中有没有什么令人激动的事情?

  [辨析] event, incident, occurrence, accident, affair

  event特别指事件,大事;比赛项目;

  例60 The new book was the cultural event of the year. 这本新书的出版是今年文化界的大事。

  incident事情,小事件;事变,突发事件;

  例61 Were there any exciting incidents during your journey? 你们在旅行中有没有什么令人激动的事情?

  occurrence通用词,指发生的事;

  例62 Getting up is an everyday occurrence.起床是每天必做的事。

  accident意外之事(尤指灾难);

  例63 His leg was broken in a bad accident last year. 他的腿在去年一次恶性事故中断了。

  affair事务, 事件, 私事;

  例64 The minister is in charge of foreign affairs. 新任部长暂时负责外国事务。

  [考题例析] Mr. Smith came to China not to go sightseeing but to see some personal____.

  A. events B. affairs

  C. incidents D. accidents

  解析 选B event指大事或比赛项目;incident小事件或突发事件;accident指恶性事件。personal affairs指私人事件。

  19. simplify vt.使简易;使易做;简化

  例65 The English in this story has been simplified to make it easier to understand. 这个故事里的英语被简写了,可更容易理解。

  [派生] simple adj. 简单的,简易的;

  [辨析] easy,simple都表示“容易的”。

  easy指不需要做太多的工作,因而容易;

  例66 Dinner isn’t easy to prepare. 晚饭不易准备。

  simple指因不复杂而容易即“简单的”;

  例67 I can work out simple crossword puzzles. 我能解出简单的填字游戏。

  [考题例析] To the beginners, it’s better to read some _____ English stories.

  A. original B. clear

  C. purified D. simplified

  解析 选D original原版的;clear清楚的;purified 净化;simplified简化。根据To the beginners (对初学者来说)当然要读简写本的故事。

  20. worn (wear的过去式) 用旧的, 疲倦的, 破烂的

  例68 She came back worn and worried. 她回来时又疲乏又忧虑。

  [拓展] wear…out破了,筋疲力尽; wear away磨损;wear off削弱;消失;wear down磨损, 损耗, 使疲劳, 使厌烦, 克服

  例69 All the workers were worn out after finishing unloading the truck. 卸完卡车的货,所有的工人都筋疲力尽。

  例70 The tyre has been worn down to a dangerous level. 轮胎已被磨损到危险的地步。

  [考题例析] After a long day spent working in the field, the peasants came back home, ____and hungry.

  A. worn B. worn out

  C. worn off D. worn away

  解析 选B worn out在句中作伴随状语,相当于and they were worn out. 意思为筋疲力尽。

  二、

  1. do up系上;扣上;修理;修补;梳妆,打扮

  例71 He didn’t do up the last button on purpose. 他故意没有扣上最后一个扣子。

  例72 Can you help me do up the house tomorrow? 明天你能帮我修理房屋吗?

  [拓展] do with 对付,处理;do without没有某物勉强应付;do away with废除

  例73 What will you do with these toys? 你打算怎么处理这些玩具?

  例74 A heavy smoker can’t go without smoking in half a day. 重度吸烟者半天都不能不抽烟。

  [考题例析] As it costs too much money putting out fires caused by smoking, the government decides to ____smoking.

  A. get away with B. take away

  C. do away with D. put away

  解析 选C get away with逃避惩罚;take away拿走,夺走;put away收起来,均不符题意。

  2. let down使失望,放下,辜负,减速下降

  例75 This machine won’t let you down. 这台机器不会出毛病,你尽管放心。

  [拓展] let alone更不用说; let off放过,燃放,宽恕;let out泄露,放宽/大

  例76 I have little to look after my family, let alone a dog. 我没有时间照顾家人,更不用说狗了。

  例77 The businessman was let off with a fine instead of being sent to prison. 商人没被入狱,而是罚了款了事。

  [考题例析] Bob has put on weight, his mother has to ____ all his trousers to his measure.

  A. let off B. let out

  C. make up D. set up

  解析 选B 根据第一句Bob体重增加,可推测是将裤子改大才可以穿。只有let out有将某物放大的意思。make up编造,化装; set up建立。

  3. at length =at last最后;终于;充分地;详细地= in great detail

  例78 He understood it at length.最后他才了解了。

  [拓展] at full length全身伸展地; in length在长度上;go all lengths/go to great lengths尽一切可能,不遗余力; keep at arm’s length避免与人太靠近

  例79 He said he would save his friend out of prison at full length. 他说要尽一切所能把他的朋友从牢里救出来。

  [考题例析] The secretary went _____ to make sure the foreign guests feel at home while visiting China.

  A. all the way B. to trouble

  C. to great lengths D. to great pain

  解析 选C all the way一路上; go与to trouble搭配是陷于困境;go to great pains是下工夫做某事,但选项少s。

  4. lose heart丧失勇气,灰心,泄气

  [拓展] lose one’s heart to喜欢上,钟情于;lose out损失;lose oneself in专心于;lose one’s way迷路;lose one’s head张皇失措,冲动

  例80 She lost herself in the book. 她专心在书上。

  例81 They lost their way in the mist.他们在雾中迷路了。

  [考题例析] The captain shouted to the excited crew: “ Don’t ______--keep calm!”

  A. lose heart B. lose your heart

  C. lose your way D. lose your head

  解析 选D 根据keep calm(保持镇定)应选lose your head,船长让激动的水手别冲动。

  5. keep up维持,保持

  例82 If this rain keeps up, the harvest will be ruined. 如果这雨继续下,收获就完蛋了。

  [拓展] keep in with和……保持友谊;keep off避开, 不接近;keep on doing继续, 保持;keep out of 躲开;置身于……之外;keep to oneself对……守口如瓶; keep up with赶上; keep away from隔离

  例 83 The doctor has warned my fat father to keep off sugar. 医生劝我的胖爸爸别吃糖。

  例84 Though it was so cold in the room, he still kept on writing. 虽然房间里很冷,他仍继续写。

  [考例解析] You are doing a splendid job; keep ____ the good work!

  A. out B. off

  C. up D. on

  解析 选C 句意:你们干得很出色,要坚持下去!keep out躲开;keep off不接近;keep on继续 ;keep up继续使某事物保持同样的(通常指高的)水平。

  6. leave behind遗留,留下

  例85 The boy begged his mother not to leave him behind. 孩子求妈妈不要留他一个人在家里。

  [拓展] leave alone别管,让独自呆着;leave off停止,中断;leave out漏掉,省略

  例86 Leave him alone. He is mad now. 别理他,他现在疯了。

  [考例解析] The real name of the murderer was ____ in the report in today’s newspaper.

  A. left behind B. left alone

  C. left off D. left out

  解析 选D 句意:凶手的真名在今天报纸的报道中被省略了。left behind 遗留;left alone别管; left off中断。根据它们各自的含义都不符题意。

  



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