Shundagarh is a village on India’s east-facing coast. It is a village of simple mud and grass houses built on the beach just above the waterline. The Khadra Hills rise immediately behind the village, to a height of one hundred and fifty meters. A simple, good-hearted old man, whose name was Jalpur, farmed two small fields on the very edge of these hills. From his fields he could see the fishing boats that travelled up and down the coast. He could see the children playing on the sands; their mothers washing clothes on the flat stones where the Shiva River flowed into the sea; and their fathers landing the latest catch or repairing nets and telling stories that had no end.
All Jalpur owned in the world were the clothes he wore day in and day out, the miserable(蹩脚的) hut that he slept in at night, a few tools and cooking pots — and his fields. The corn that he grew was all that made life possible. If the weather was kind and the harvest was good, Jalpur could live happily enough — not well, but happily. When the sun was fierce,and there was little or no rain, then he came close to the line between life and death.
Last year the weather had been so kind, and the harvest promised to be so good, that Jalpur had been wondering whether he could sell all that he had and live with his son farther up the coast. He had been thinking about doing this for some years. It was his dearest wish to spend his last days with his son and his wife. But he would go only if he could give;he would not go if it meant taking food out of the mouths of his grandchildren. He would rather die hungry than do this.
On the day when Jalpur decided that he would harvest his corn,sell it, and move up the coast, he looked out to sea and saw a huge wave, several kilometers out,advancing on the coast and on the village of Shundagarh. Within ten minutes everyone in Shundagarh would be drowned. Jalpur would have shouted,but the people were too far away to hear. He would have run down the hill, but he was too old to run. He was prepared to do anything to save the people of Shundagarh, so he did the only thing that he could do: he set fire to his corn. In a matter of seconds the flames were rising high and smoke was rising higher. Within a minute the people of Shundagarh were racing up the hill to see what had happened. There, in the middle of his blackened cornfield, they found Jalpur; and there they buried him.
On his grave,they wrote the words:Here lies Jalpur, a man who gave, living: a man who died, giving.
1. Which of the following could Jalpur NOT see from his Fields?
A. Mothers washing clothes.
B. Fathers taking their corn to market.
C. Fishing boats traveling on the sea.
D. Children playing on the sands.
2. Why didn’t Jalpur live well?
A. He didn’t work hard.
B. He had too many children to feed.
C. He only depended on good weather and harvest for survival.
D. The villagers kept taking his corn.
3. Jalpur’s dearest wish was to _____.
A. move away from his son
B. take a vacation up the coast
C. make a great deal of money in order to live an easy life
D. spend his last days with his son and his wife
4. What did Jalpur do when he saw the huge wave?
A. He set his corn on fire so the people of Shundagarh would leave the beach.
B. He screamed loudly to get the villagers’ attention.
C. He ran down the hill to tell the people.
D. He stood still, not knowing what to do.
5. The villagers were thankful to Jalpur because he had_____.
A. given his life in order to save theirs
B. saved their village from being drowned by the wave
C. given them many things during his life
D. given them his corn in order to save them from hunger
People can be addicted to(沉溺于) different things — e.g. alcohol, drug,certain foods, or even television. People who have such an addiction are compulsive(0强迫的):they have a very powerful psychological need that they feel they must satisfy. According to psychologists,many people are compulsive spenders. They feel that they must spend money. This compulsion, like most others, is impossible to explain reasonably. For compulsive spenders who buy on credit(以赊欠方式), charge accounts are even more exciting than money. In other words, compulsive spenders feel that with credit, they can do anything. Their pleasure in spending large amounts is actually greater than the pleasure that they get from the things they buy.
There is even a special psychology of bargain hunting. To save money, of course, most people look for sales, low prices, and discounts. Compulsive bargain hunters, however, often buy things that they don’t need just because they are cheap. They want to believe that they are helping their budgets(预算), but they are really playing an exciting game. When they can buy something for less than other people, they feel that they are winning. Most people,experts claim, have two reasons for their behavior: a good reason for the things that they do and the real reason.
It is not only scientists, of course,who understand the psychology of spending habits, but also business people. Stores, companies, and advertisers use psychology to increase business. They consider people’s needs for love, power, or influence, their basic values, their beliefs and opinions, and so on in their advertising and sales methods.
Psychologists often use a method called “behavior therapy(疗法)” to help individuals solve their personality problems. In the same way, they can help people who feel that they have problems with money.
6. According to the psychologists, a compulsive spender
is one who spends large amounts of money _____.
A. and takes great pleasure from what he or she buys
B. in order to satisfy his or her basic needs in life
C. just to meet his or her strong psychological need
D. and feels he or she is cheated
7. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the text?
A. People spend money for exactly the same reasonthat they need to buy things.
B. Business people and advertisers can use the psychology of people’s spending habits to increase sales.
C. Business people understand the psychology of
compulsive buying better than scientists do.
D. Compulsive bargain hunters do not have problems with money.
8. What is the text mainly about?
A. The psychology of money-spending habits.
B. The habits of compulsive spenders.
C. A special psychology of bargain hunting.
D. The use of the psychology of spending habits in business.
9. From the text we may safely conclude that compulsive
spenders or compulsive bargain hunters _____.
A. are really unreasonable
B. need special treatment
C. are really beyond drugs
D. can never get any help to solve their problems with money
Happy birthday!Do birthdays really make people happy? Of course they do. Birthdays celebrate the day we were born. Besides, that extra candle on the cake suggests another year of growth and maturity (成熟)— or so we hope. We all like to imagine that we’re getting wiser and not just older. Most of us enjoy seeing the miracle(奇迹) of growth in others,as well. For instance,seeing our children develop and learn new things makes us feel proud. For Americans, like people in most cultures, growing up is a wonderful process(过程). But growing old? That’s a different story.
Growing old is not exactly pleasant for people in youth-oriented(以年轻人为中心) American culture. Most Americans like to look young,act young and feel young. As the old saying goes, “You’re as young as you feel.” Older people joke about how many years young they are, rather than how many years old. People in some countries value the aged as a source of experience and wisdom. But Americans seem to favor those that are young, or at least “young at heart.”
Many older Americans find the “golden years” to be anything but golden. Economically, “senior citizens” often struggle just to get by. Retirement(退休) at age 65 brings a sharp decrease in personal income. Social security(安全) benefits usually cannot make up the difference. Older people may suffer from poor nutrition(营养), medical care and housing. Some even experience age discrimination. In 1987, American sociologist Pat Moore dressed up like an older person and wandered city streets. She was often treated rudely — even cheated and robbed. However,dressed as a young person, she received much more respect.
Unfortunately, the elderly population in America is increasing fast. Why? People are living longer. Fewer babies are being born. And middle-aged “baby boomers” are rapidly entering the groups of the elderly. America may soon be a place where wrinkles(皱纹) are “in”. Marketing experts are already noticing this growing group of consumers.
10. Growing up is a wonderful thing because _____.
A. people can celebrate their birthdays
B. people can become more mature and wiser
C. people can receive many presents
D. people will feel younger at heart
11. We can infer from the second paragraph that _____.
A. young people lack experience and wisdom
B. American older people often joke about their old age
C. American culture is very young
D. different countries have different opinions on the old age
12. The underlined sentence (in Paragraph 3) means“_____.”
A. The golden years can make the old earn lots of money and receive good medical care
B. The old people in America are leading a hard life without good nutrition, medical care or housing
C. The old in America have to retire at the age of 65
D. American social security benefits are not good
13. From the last paragraph we know that the underlined word “in” can be replaced by _____.
A. serious B. bad
C. disappearing slowly D. growing fast
When she looked ahead, Florence Chadwick saw nothing but a solid wall of fog. Her body was numb(麻木的). She had been swimming for nearly sixteen hours. Already she was the first woman to swim the English Channel in both directions. Now, at age 34, her goal was to become the first woman to swim from Catalina Island to the California coast.
On that fourth of July morning in 1952, the sea was like an ice bath and the fog was so thick that she could hardly see her support boats. Sharks swam toward her lone figure, only to be driven away by rifle shots. Against the frigid grip of the sea,she struggled on — hour after hour — while millions watched on national television.
Alongside Florence in one of the boats, her mother and her trainer offered encouragement. They told her it wasn’t much farther. But all she could see was fog. They urged her not to give up. She never had...until then. With only a half mile to go, she asked to be pulled out.
Still thawing(使变暖和) her chilled body several hours later, she told a reporter, “Look, I’m not excusing myself, but if I could have seen land I might have made it.” It was not fatigue or even the cold water that defeated her. It was the fog. She was unable to see her goal.
Two months later, she tried again. This time, despite the same dense fog, she swam with her faith intact(完整无损的) and her goal clearly pictured in her mind. She knew that somewhere behind that fog was land and this time she made it! Florence Chadwick became the first woman to swim the Catalina Channel, eclipsing(超越) the men’s record by two hours!
14. Why didn’t Florence swim across the Catalina
Channel for the first time?
A. Because she was too tired to go on swimming.
B. Because the fog was so thick that she couldn’t see her support boats clearly.
C. Because she couldn’t see the goal on land.
D. Because the sea water was too cold.
15. What does the underlined sentence mean?
A. She had never been so hopeless.
B. She had never thought of giving up.
C. She had never seen such a thick fog.
D. She had never swum across the Channel before.
16. Which of the following is NOT true?
A. Florence Chadwick spent less time swimming across the Catalina Channel than men.
B. Florence Chadwick succeeded in swimming across the Catalina Channel in September , 1952.
C. People had to use guns to drive away some flesh-eating animals in the sea.
D. No women but Florence Chadwick were able to swim the English Channel in both directions.
The time you spend at the office may be the most stressful(紧张的) part of your day, but it doesn’t have to be. You have a greater ability to shape your office environment than you may realize.
Take breaks throughout the day. It will help clear your mind and relieve pressure. Something as simple as going to the water cooler for a drink may do the trick.
Take part in a noontime or an after-work exercise class. This will give you a chance to relax and a way to relieve stress.
To help your workday go smoothly, try arranging your activities: Do more demanding work in the morning, when your energy level is higher, and easier work later in the day, when you may be tired.
Try listening to music recordings, such as a pounding surf or songbirds, to help you relax. Such tapes are sold in many shops. Use headphones if you are listening to them in the middle of the workday.
Get to work early or stay late once a week. You may be able to complete more when you change your daily work.
If your stress comes from job insecurity, take stock of yourself. Renew your knowledge, and remind yourself of your skills and strengths. Also, make sure you keep up with new developments in your fields. This will make you valuable to employers.
Don’t let rumors(谣言) at work, which are usually false, cause you worry. A co-worker may just be thinking out loud about worst-case imagined events.
If your office is less structured (or if you are the boss), consider a company mascot(吉祥物). A cat or dog can do wonders for workers’morale.
17. Which of the following can work out your stress at
A. Having rests during the day.
B. Doing hard work in the afternoon.
C. Never to learn new things.
D. Getting up early or staying up late.
18. Which of the following groups of words have the same meaning in this passage?