Direction: In this part, there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.
Passage 1 Well over half a century ago, neurologists found that by placing elements on the scalp they could record the electrical signature of the brain at work. Most of them saw a random hotchpotch of signalsthe combined activity of hundred of thousands of brain cells. But they were astonished to find long stretches when this mess of activity became ordered into a pattern of elegant rhythmical waves. Ever since, scientists have wondered whether the secrets of our thoughts, perceptions and even consciousness itself might be hidden in the patterns of our brain waves.
The question of why we have brain waves — and what they tell us about how we think — is as hotly debated today as it was when the patterns were discovered. Researchers can see slow “alpha” waves in scalp recordings when the brain is relaxed, and “theta” and “delta” rhythms while we sleep. But the meaning, and even the existence, of faster “gamma” rhythms in the alert brain is highly controversial.
The problem is that you cant see these faster rhythms directly. They are so well hidden in the noise of other brain activity that researchers have to uncover them by mathematically breaking up the scalp electrode tracethe electroencephalogram or EEG — into its component frequencies. And once youve uncovered a rhythm, how do you know it is anything more than an artifact of the technique, or a meaningless by — product of neurons that are wired together into networks?
But many researchers are now coming round to the idea that these brain waves are for real, and far from meaningless. The latest suggestion is that the rhythms could be the key to detecting, kinking and organizing processes going on in different regions of the brain. Some believe that two of the rhythms — the theta rhythm, with between 4 and 8 waves a second, and the gamma rhythm, which oscillates up to ten times faster — might even interact, and in so doing help the brain to package information into coherent images, thoughts and memories. Some of the first clues that brain waves might help to organize neural activities came from experiments with rats. By recording from large electrodes placed in the hippocampusa brain area that is important for navigation, learning and memory — neurophysiologists detected a very prominent theta rhythm. “Early on, there was a strong concern that this was an artifact of sniffing,” says Howard Eichenbaum, a neuroscientist at Boston University. People thought that the rhythmic muscle activity was modulating the electrical signal. But theta waves are now known to be the result of genuine neuronal activity associated with the animals movement through the environment, he says. And they turn out to provide an elegant framework for organizing the activity of hippocampus neurons.
1. Whats scientists assumption on electrode experiment?
A. Its recording of brains electrical signature at work.
B. There is complex activity of brain cells when human being is at work.
C. There is pattern of elegant rhythmical waves at times.
D. There is some linkup between peoples brain work and the patterns of their brain waves.
2. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true?
A. Researchers can see faster “gamma” rhythms in people when they are in alert situation.
B. The function of brain waves causes the controversy as the discovery of that used to do.
C. Slow “alpha” can be researched when human brain is relaxed.
D. Scalp recordings show “theta” and “delta” rhythms while people are asleep.
3. Researchers have to uncover faster rhythms by
A. placing electrodes on the scalp.B. recording random hotchpotch of signals.
C. breaking up the scalp electrode trace.D. discovering byproducts of neurons.
4. What does “Hippocampus” mean?
A. It means a kind of badlooking animal that mostly lives in water.
B. It means a brain area essential to navigation, learning and memory.
C. It means a brain area where neurophysiologists detected a very prominent theta rhythm.
D. It means a range where brain waves organize neural activities.
5. The passage mainly discusses
A. the existing reason of humans brain waves.
B. deeper probing for human beings brain waves.
C. scientific breakthrough on human brains experiments.
D. human movement and their brain waves.
Passage 2 Manners nowadays in metropolitan cities like London are practically nonexistent. It is nothing for a big, strong schoolboy to elbow an elderly woman aside in the dash for the last remaining seat on the tube or bus, much less stand up and offer his seat to her, as he ought to. In fact, it is saddening to note that if a man does offer his seat to an older woman, it is nearly always a continental man or the older generation.
This question of giving up seats in public transport is much argued about by young men, who say that, since women have claimed equality, they no longer deserve to be treated with courtesy and that those who go out to work should take their turn in the rat race like anyone else. Women have never claimed to be physically as strong as men. Even if it is not agreed, however, that young men should stand up for young women, the fact remains that courtesy should be shown to the old, the sick and the burdened. Are we really lost to all ideals of unselfishness that we can sit there indifferent reading the paper or a book, saying to ourselves “First come, First served”, while a greyhaired woman, a mother with a young child or a cripple stands? Yet this is all too often seen.
Conditions in travel are really very hard on everyone, we know, but hardship is surely no excuse. Sometimes one wonders what has been the behavior of these stout young men in a packed refugee train on its way to prison camp during the War. Would they have considered it only right and their proper due to keep the best place for themselves then?
Older people, tired and irritable from a days work, arent angels, either — far from it. Many a brisk argument or an insulting quarrel breaks out as the weary queues push and shove each other to get on buses or tubes. One cant command this, of course, but one does feel there is just a little more excuse.
If cities are to remain pleasant places to live in at all, however, it seems urgent not only that communications in transport should be improved, but also that communication between human beings should be kept smooth and polite. All over cities, it seems that people are too tired and too rushed to be polite. Shop assistant wont bother to assist, taxidrivers growl at each other as they dash dangerously round the corner, bus conductors pull the bell before their desperate passengers have had time to get on or off the bus, and so on and so on. It seems to us that it is up to the young and strong to do their small part to stop such “deterioration”.
1. Whats the authors opinion concerning courteous manners toward women?
A. Now that they have claimed equality, they no longer need to be treated differently from men.
B. It is generally oldfashioned for young men to give their seats to young women.
C. “Lady First” should be universally practiced.
D. Special consideration ought to be shown to them.
2. Whats the purpose of giving instance of stout young men during the War in paragraph 3?
A. to arouse readers indignation toward War
B. to make people realize the crowd of city transport
C. to illustrate that hardship is no excuse
D. to warm people to avoid traffic prime
3. According to the author, communication between human beings would be smoother if
A. People were more considerate towards each other.
B. People were not so tired and irritable.
C. Women were treated with more courtesy.
D. Public transport could be improved.
4. Whats the possible meaning of the word “deterioration” in the last paragraph?
A. worsening of the general situation.B. lowering of the moral standards.
C. declining of physical constitution. D. spreading of evil conduct.
5. How could you describe the tone of this passage?
A. neutral.B. indignant.
C. optimistic.D. impellent.
Passage 3 Cryptic coloring is by far the commonest use of color in the struggle for existence. It is employed for the purpose of attack (aggressive resemblance or anticryptic coloring) as well as defense (protective resemblance of procryptic coloring). The fact that the same method, concealment, may be used both for attack and defense has been well explained by T. Belt who suggests as an illustration the rapidity of movement which is also made use of by both pursuer and pursued, which is similarly raised to a maximum in both by the gradual dying out of the slowest through a series of generations. Cryptic coloring is commonly associated with other aids in the struggle for life. Thus wellconcealed mammals and birds, discovered, will generally endeavor to escape by speed and will often attempt to defend themselves actively. On the other hand, small animals that have no means of active defense, such as large numbers of insects, frequently depend upon concealment alone. Protective resemblance is far commoner among animals than aggressive resemblance, in correspondence with the fact that predaceous forms are as a rule much larger and much less numerous than their prey. In the case of insectivorous Vertebrata and their prey such differences exist in an exaggerated form. Cryptic coloring, whether used for defense or attack, may be either general of special. In general resemblance the animal, in consequence of its coloring, produces the same effect as its environment, but the conditions do not require any special adaptation of shape and outline. General resemblance is especially common among the animals inhabiting some uniformly colored expanse of the earths surface, such as an ocean or a desert. In the former, animals of all shapes are frequently protected by their transparent blue color; on the latter, equally diverse forms are defended by their sandy appearance. The effect of a uniform appearance may be produced by a combination of tints in starting contrast. Thus the white and black stripes of the zebra blend together at a little distance, and “their proportion is such as exactly to match the pale tint which arid ground possesses when seen by moonlight”. Special resemblance is far commoner than general and is the form which is usually met with on the diversified surface of the earth, on the shore, and in shallow water, as well as on the floating masses of algae on the surface of the ocean, such as the Sargasso Sea. In these environments the cryptic coloring of animals is usually aided by special modifications of shape, and by the instinct which leads them to assume particular attitudes. Complete stillness and the assumption of a certain attitude play an essential part in general resemblance on land; but in special resemblance the attitude is often highly specialized, and perhaps more important than any other element in the complex method by which concealment is effected. In special resemblance the combination of coloring, shape, and attitude is such as to produce a more or less exact resemblance to some one of the objects in the environment, such as a leaf or twig, a patch of lichen, of flake of bark. In all cases the resemblance is to some object which is of no interest to the enemy or prey prospectively. The animal is not hidden from view by becoming indistinguishable from its background as in the case of general resemblance, but it is mistaken for some wellknown object.
1. When does aggressive resemblance occur?
A. An animal blends with its background.B. Shadows are balanced by tinting.
C. An animal relies on its speed.D. A predaceous attitude is assumed.
2. Of the flowing, which is the least common?
A. protective resemblance.B. general resemblance.
C. aggressive resemblance.D. special resemblance.
3. Which of the following is true according to the context?
A. Predator runs faster than its prey.
B. The speed is gradually raised by dying out for existence.
C. Animals need all adaptation of shape and outline to protect themselves.
D. General resemblance is as common as special resemblance.
4. Special resemblance differs from general resemblance in that the animal relies on
A. its ability to frighten its adversaryB. coloring
C. speedD. mistaken identity
5. Which of the titles can best express the ideas of the whole passage?
A. cryptic Coloration for ProtectionB. how Animals Survive
C. the Uses of Mimicry in NatureD. preserving the Species
Passage 4 Every Dec.26, millions of folks in Britain, Canada and Australia take an extra 24 hours off after Christmas to celebrate what to most Americans sounds like a madeup holiday.
A few years ago, one of my friends moved to London and I visited her for New Years Eve. I flew to Heathrow Airport a few days after Christmas, unable to travel before that as I had to be at work on the 26th.
“But thats Boxing Day,” she said.
“Whos in the match?” I wondered, picturing a pugilists ring decked with faux evergreen and a card girl wearing a risque Santa outfit.
“No. Its British. Its the holiday the day after Christmas,” she said, with more than a hint of an evolving English accent.
Hmmm. Why not call it Hangover Day Or Food Coma Fest? Gift Return Day? The SecondBiggestShoppingDayoftheYearDay?
My newly converted Anglophile pal explained the genesis, as she understood it, of Boxing Day. It had something to do with the day the servants in English society got their gifts and the day off after serving the gentry during the Christmas festivities.
Nice idea. Why didnt it translate to the colonies across the Atlantic?
A little research gave a few hints.
Some historians swear that Boxing Day was invented to reinforce the English class system, when the middleand upper — classes would give money or goods to the servants class or generic poor the day after Christmas, expecting nothing in return. The upper classes exchanged gifts with each other, as equals, on Christmas proper.
It would have been improper for a lower class person to give a gift to a person of higher station because it would have implied that they were equals, some historians say. Hence, Boxing Day.
Other historians have a more sympathetic outlook on the motives behind the Boxing Day giftgiving, saying the boxes of food and other goods given by the merchant class to servants and tradesmen were a kind of Christmas tip. The “tips” were packaged in boxes, like Christmas presents.
Another theory says Boxing Day is so named because thats the day when the priests busted open the “poor box” in the church sanctuary and distributed the donations left inside throughout the year.
Or perhaps Boxing Day derives its meaning, if not its name, from a 10th — century Bohemian saint, King Wenceslas, Who, according to lore and a 19th century Christmas carol, gave a gift to a poor man on the Feast of St.Stephen — Dec.26.
In Ireland, where they have a way of taking holidays and making them a bit more festive, Dec.26 is celebrated as St. Stephens Day.
This national holiday in Ireland features a dead saint and a dead bird.
St..Stephen the Protomartyr, as he is officially known, was the first Christmas martyr. He was stoned to death shortly after Jesus was killed on Calvary, according to New Testament accounts.
Some lores claim a screeching wren betrayed St. Stephens hiding place in a bush before he was stoned.
Therefore wrens should be hunted down and stoned like St. Stephen. Although now mostly Irish boys tie a holly branch to the top of a stick as they go door to celebrate St. Stephens Day, the original custom was to hunt down a wren and tie the carcass to the stick.
Another Celtic myth says that the robin (representing the new year) kills off the wren (representing the old year) the day after Christmas.
What Stephen, the patron saint of stonemasons and horses, may have to do with Boxing Day, Im still not sure.
Whatever its true origins, historians agree, Boxing Day has nothing to do with our unofficial American Boxing Day rituals of tossing empty gift boxes and wrapping paper out of the house, or returning unwanted gifts to the department store.
If it were ever to catch on in the States, maybe we could call Boxing Day, Sharing Day? Dont Be Selfish Day? Pay It Forward Day? Be Nice To Wrens Day?
Or maybe just Good Day.
1. Which day is Boxing Day?
A. Dec.26B. Dec.25
C. Dec.24D. Dec.27
2. Why didnt the author fly to London to spend Christmas there?
A. He wanted to spend Christmas with his family.
B. He had to visit other friends on Christmas.
C. He had to work on the 26th.
D. He had planned to get there for New Yorks Eve.
3. What did the author think of Boxing Day when he first heard of the name?
A. He thought of festive occasion.
B. He hit on the decorated ring and propaganda girl.
C. He thought of the scene of boxing.
D. He hit on the origin of the festival.
4. Whats NOT the possible origin of Boxing Day given by historian in the passage?
A. The Boxing Day was invented to reinforce the English class system.
B. On Boxing Day merchant class used to give servants their Christmas tip.
C. Priests opened “poor box” and distributed the donations thought the year on that day.
D. Irish hunted birds on Boxing Day.
5. Whats the best title for this passage?
A. Todays Boxing Day.
B. The origin of Boxing Day.
C. The celebration activity in Boxing Day.
D. Boxing Day: What a Curiously British Tradition.
Keys and notes for the passage reading:Passage 1
1. They are so well hidden in the noise of other brain activity that researchers have to uncover them by mathematically breaking up the scalp electrode tracethe electroencephalogram or EEGinto its component frequencies. 那些高速射线隐蔽在人脑发出的声音内部，很难寻觅，研究者们只有将脑皮层电极轨迹精确地分解为组成轨迹才能有所发现。
2. Some believe that two of the rhythmsthe theta rhythm, with between 4 and 8 waves a second, and the gamma rhythm, which oscillates up to ten times fastermight even interact, and in so doing help the brain to package information into coherent images, thoughts and memories. 一些研究者认为有两种射线（一秒4—8个波长的思尔挞射线和振动高达十倍的噶麻射线）可能产生相互反应，并通过反应将脑中信息转化为连续的形象、思维及记忆。
2. 【A】第二段最后一句指出它们之间并没有必然联系, 关系也是有争议的。
1. It is nothing for a big, strong schoolboy to elbow an elderly woman aside in the dash for the last remaining seat on the tube or bus, much less stand up and offer his seat to her, as he ought to. 一个高大、壮实的男孩用肘子将一位老人撞到一边去抢位子已经是不足为奇了，更别提让他把位子让给老人家，其实这也是他该做的。
Are we really lost to all ideals of unselfishness that we can sit there indifferent reading the paper or a book, saying to ourselves “First come, First served”, while a greyhaired woman, a mother with a young child or a cripple stands? 我们真的完全丧失了无私的品德吗？即使一位白发苍苍的老人，一位抱者孩子的母亲或是一位残疾人站在我们身旁，我们仍能熟视无睹地看我们的书和报而对自己说本来就应该先来先坐吗？
2. Sometimes one wonders what has been the behavior of these stout young men in a packed refugee train on its way to prison camp during the War. Would they have considered it only right and their proper due to keep the best place for themselves then? 有时有人会想那些在战争中被送往集中营的火车上的身强力壮的人会怎么做。他们会想到应该为自己抢占最好的位置吗？
5. 【D】由文末的点睛之笔可知作者的最终态度仍是从正面激励人们去提高社会道德意识。Passage 3
1. The fact that the same method, concealment, may be used both for attack and defense has been well explained by T. Belt who suggests as an illustration the rapidity of movement which is also made use of by both pursuer and pursued, which is similarly raised to a maximum in both by the gradual dying out of the slowest through a series of generations. 悌被特很充分的说明了进攻者和防守者都需要躲避这一事实并给出了例证：进攻者和防守者都会在生存竞争中保留下跑得快的物种而将动作慢的淘汰掉。
2. Protective resemblance is far commoner among animals than aggressive resemblance, in correspondence with the fact that predaceous forms are as a rule much larger and much less numerous than their prey. 自我保护比进攻性保护更常见，这是因为掠食性动物比猎物个头大但数量少。
3. The animal is not hidden from view by becoming indistinguishable from its background as in the case of general resemblance, but it is mistaken for some wellknown object. 采用特殊保护色进行自我保护的动物与普通保护动物不同，它们是依靠掠食者将其误认作其不感兴趣的东西的错觉来进行自我保护的。
1. 【D】根据文中第2句话可知aggressive resemblance 是用于进攻的，所以只有食肉动物在掠食即目标锁定后，才会采取行动。故应选择D。
3. 【B】第3句中捕食者和掠食者为生存都在优胜劣汰的进化过程中提高移动的速度：第十句中 general resemblance无需形状，轮廓的一致；十五句中较之更为普遍。故应选择B。
1. I flew to Heathrow Airport a few days after Christmas, unable to travel before that as I had to be at work on the 26th. 圣诞节过后好几天我才到。我没能早点到是因为在26号我得上班。
2. I wondered, picturing a pugilists ring decked with faux evergreen and a card girl wearing a risque Santa outfit. 我琢磨着，想到了装饰着长青植物的拳击场和穿得奇奇怪怪的女孩。
3. Another theory says Boxing Day is so named because thats the day when the priests busted open the “poor box” in the church sanctuary and distributed the donations left inside throughout the year. 关于拳击节得名的另一说法是在那一天牧师会将一整年募捐来的公德箱打开分发捐赠物。
5. 【D】综观全文可以很容易得出答案D, 其余的都片面不准确。