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托福写作中要如何巧用小词短句

2013年06月05日10:07
作者:太傻网

  托福写作作为实战性极强的考试,考生需在短短的30分钟以内,打出三四百字的文章俘获考官的芳心,让他断然给你高分。这很有挑战性,需要扎实的打磨训练,有高能才有可能有高分;但与此同时,作为一线的教师,在长期与考官交锋对战的战场上,我们也摸出一些门道,摸索到了考官偏爱的一些核心的短句小词,大家在战场上若能灵活地加以运用,必能增强战斗力,赢取高分。

  知己知彼,才能百战不殆。在托福写作语言运用上,考官明确要求(第四版OG209)

  Displays consistent facility in the use

  of language, demonstrating syntactic variety, appropriate word choice, and idiomaticity, though it may have minor lexical or grammatical errors.

  语言的熟练运用,需要掌握写作中的亮点句型句式,体现出句法的多样性和词汇选择的恰当性。大家会注重句型句式的积累,但是,很多备战的考生往往特别容易忽视写作中的小词。妙用小词短句,必能巧胜托福考试。

  本文主要结合大量高分学员习作案例总结归纳出比较对比,细化列举及原因剖析上高分亮点小词短句,助大家备考一臂之力。

  一. 比较对比特征显

  比较对比是颇有表现力的论证方法,巧用小词短句,方能活灵活现。

  1.1 rather than

  因此,人们并非积极进取,而是开始松懈,因为他们失去了工作的动力。老师也不例外。

  Thus, rather than making progress, people star to wind down since they’ve lost their motivation for working; so would the teachers.(摘自学员满分作文)

  1.2 instead of

  应该教孩子们如何从互联网获取有益的信息,而不是沉溺于玩电脑游戏。

  Instead of indulging in playing computer games, children should be taught how to benefit from useful information on the internet.

  1.3 compared with -A, A…;

  A…,whereas / while -A …

  • 与书本相比,互联网具有许多明显的好处比如说高速,高效,易于操作等等。

  Compared with books, the Internet enjoys many obvious advantages such as high speed, great efficiency, easy accessibility, to name just a few.

  1.4 Not for……but for……

  学生们从事兼职工作不是为了赚钱,而是为了更好地了解社会。

  College students take up part-time jobs not for making more money, but for a better understanding of the society.

  二、细化列举例子显

  细化列举是对主题句中的关键词或关键情节的细化。表示细化列举的小词很有表现力,可以直接给出托福写作中的核心部分:举例子。这正是很多考生最为薄弱的环节。灵活运用这类小词,不仅句法上灵活丰富,而且例子鲜活充分,表达意思也更为丰满,容易赢取高分。

  2.1 including(such as….. like…..)

  The mess media including TV, broadcast,newspaper,magazines,Internet,etc.

  2.2 in view of ……

  Granted, the development of economy does have much positive effect on every respect of a country. The modern life of us will be much better in view of the higher level school, lower priced merchants, advanced hospital and the more convenient transportation.

  2.3 just imagine

  • First of all, the benefits from the academic studies are of great significance. Just imagine what we have learned on the academic class: the mathematics, grammar, and the physics and so on. These are all basic knowledge and skills that are essential for further study and future career.

  2.4 By doing sth(a+b+c), students can ….

  The very first rationale for taking the economics course is that it makes people more matured and sensible. By learning about those economics conceptions, behaviors of customers and producers, the tax policy, especially the value and functions of money,(细化列举) students would ponder and contemplate the idea that there’s no easy money existing in the world and that their parents have been striving hard for their living. Hence, their naïveté would gradually diminish, and they would correctly face the problem and setbacks in the society with a more sophisticated heart and judicious mind.

  2.5 Even though a, b, c can trigger…..

  • Although all those fairytales, fantastic stories, stimulating scenes and magical effects indeed trigger children’s imagination, their endlessly soaring minds would make them reluctant to leave the untrue world.

  先让步,虽然能激发想象力,但是让孩子们不愿意离开不现实的世界。 在让步中进行了细化列举 。

  三. 原因剖析深度显

  托福官方指南OG第四版209页明确要求托福写作要给出充分的解释(explanation),而这个也是考官最为看重的内容之一。刷过托福考试的考生都知道,考官会在我们的成绩单评语中评价我们有没有给出充分的解释,而剖析原因是最直接有效的解释方式。掌握剖析原因的小词对于写作获胜颇为关键。

  3.1 on the grounds that(基于…理由)

  (on the ground that, on grounds that)

  Liu Dehua refused to answer questions about his relationship/wife on the grounds that it may disturb their tranquil life.

  3.2 ...can be attributed to...(+名词......可以归因于……)

  This difference can be attributed/ascribed to the cultural background.

  3.3 For the sake of 也表示因果关系

  Improve or bring advantage to 所以它的意思更接近于英文的for the purpose of helping/ improving。例如:

  Many elderly people prefer to live in the countryside for the purpose of improving their health.

  Many elderly people prefer to live in the countryside for the sake of their health.

  3.4 by virtue of意思是“通过......来......”, 也可灵活运用表示因果关系。

  她的成功是因为她的运气而非天赋。

  She succeeded by virtue of her lucy rather than her talent.

  3.5 Given..., In view of ...和In light of 三个表达都是“考虑到,鉴于.....”的意思,后面跟名词或者名词短语,也是用来引出因果关系的精品。

  鉴于工作压力的逐渐增加,他打算牺牲高薪工作来换取更多的空闲时间。

  Given/in view of/in light of the mounting pressure at work, he would sacrifice his high-paying job in exchange for more leisure time.

  希望大家巧用这三个方面的小词短句,致胜托福写作!

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