3 The SAH’s approach to organizational structure required changing practices in
A industrial relations. B firing staff.
C hiring staff. D marketing.
4 The total number of jobs advertised at the SAH was
A 70. B 120. C 170. D 280.
5 Categories A, B and C were used to select
A front office staff. B new teams.
C department heads. D new managers.
Complete the following summary of the last four paragraphs of Reading Passage I using ONE OR TWO words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 6-13 on your answer sheet.
WHAT THEY DID AT SAH
Teams of employees were selected from different hotel departments to participate in a ......(6)...... exercise.
The information collected was used to compare ......(7)...... processes which, in turn, led to the development of ......(8)...... that would be used to increase the hotel’s capacity to improve ......(9)...... as well as quality.
Also, an earlier program known as ......(10)...... was introduced into SAH. In this program, ......(11)...... is sought from customers and staff. Wherever possible ......(12)...... suggestions are implemented within 48 hours. Other suggestions are investigated for their feasibility for a period of up to ......(13).......
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
The discovery that language can be a barrier to communication is quickly made by all who travel, study, govern or sell. Whether the activity is tourism, research, government, policing, business, or data dissemination, the lack of a common language can severely impede progress or can halt it altogether. ‘Common language’ here usually means a foreign language, but the same point applies in principle to any encounter with unfamiliar dialects or styles within a single language. ‘They don’t talk the same language’ has a major metaphorical meaning alongside its literal one.
Although communication problems of this kind must happen thousands of times each day, very few become public knowledge. Publicity comes only when a failure to communicate has major consequences, such as strikes, lost orders, legal problems, or fatal accidents—even, at times, war. One reported instance of communication failure took place in 1970, when several Americans ate a species of poisonous mushroom. No remedy was known, and two of the people died within days. A radio report of the case was heard by a chemist who knew of a treatment that had been successfully used in 1959 and published in 1963. Why had the American doctors not heard of it seven years later? Presumably because the report of the treatment had been published only in journals written in European languages other than English.
Several comparable cases have been reported. But isolated examples do not give an impression of the size of the problem— something that can come only from studies of the use or avoidance of foreign-language materials and contacts in different communicative situations. In the English-speaking scientific world, for example, surveys of books and documents consulted in libraries and other information agencies have shown that very little foreign-language material is ever consulted. Library requests in the field of science and technology showed that only 13 per cent were for foreign language periodicals. Studies of the sources cited in publications lead to a similar conclusion: the use of foreign-language sources is often found to be as low as 10 per cent.
The language barrier presents itself in stark form to firms who wish to market their products in other countries. British industry, in particular, has in recent decades often been criticized for its linguistic insularity—for its assumption that foreign buyers will be happy to communicate in English, and that awareness of other languages is not therefore a priority. In the 1960s, over two-thirds of British firms dealing with non-English-speaking customers were using English for outgoing correspondence; many had their sales literature only in English; and as many as 40 per cent employed no-one able to communicate in the customers’ languages. A similar problem was identified in other English-speaking countries, notably the USA, Australia and New Zealand. And non-English-speaking countries were by no means exempt—although the widespread use of English as an alternative language made them less open to the charge of insularity.
The criticism and publicity given to this problem since the 1960s seems to have greatly improved the situation. Industrial training schemes have promoted an increase in linguistic and cultural awareness. Many firms now have their own translation services; to take just one example in Britain, Rowntree Mackintosh now publish their documents in six languages (English, French, German, Dutch, Italian and Xhosa). Some firms run part-time language courses in the languages of the countries with which they are most involved; some produce their own technical glossaries, to ensure consistency when material is being translated. It is now much more readily appreciated that marketing efforts can be delayed, damaged, or disrupted by a failure to take account of linguistic needs of the customer.
The changes in awareness have been most marked in Englishspeaking countries, where the realization has gradually dawned that by no means everyone in the world knows English well enough to negotiate in it. This is especially a problem when English is not an official language of public administration, as in most parts of the Far East, Russia, Eastern Europe, the Arab world, Latin America and French-speaking Africa. Even in cases where foreign customers can speak English quite well, it is often forgotten that they may not be able to understand it to the required level—bearing in mind the regional and social variation which permeates speech and which can cause major problems of listening comprehension. In securing understanding, how ‘we’ speak to ‘them’ is just as important, it appears, as how ‘they’ speak to ‘us’.
Complete each of the following statements (Questions 14-17) with words taken from Reading Passage 2. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.
14 Language problems may come to the attention of the public when they have ………………………………….. , such as fatal accidents or social problems.
15 Evidence of the extent of the language barrier has been gained from ………………………………. of materials used by scientists such as books and periodicals.
16 An example of British linguistic insularity is the use of English for materials such as …………………………………. .
17 An example of a part of the world where people may have difficulty in negotiating English is ……………………….…….……
Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 18-20 on your answer sheet.
18 According to the passage, ‘They don’t talk the same language’ (paragraph 1), can refer to problems in
A understanding metaphor.
B learning foreign languages.
C understanding dialect or style.
D dealing with technological change.
19 The case of the poisonous mushrooms (paragraph 2) suggests that American doctors
A should pay more attention to radio reports.
B only read medical articles if they are in English.
C are sometimes unwilling to try foreign treatments.
D do not always communicate effectively with their patients.
20 According to the writer, the linguistic insularity of British businesses
A later spread to other countries.
B had a negative effect on their business.
C is not as bad now as it used to be in the past.
D made non-English-speaking companies turn to other markets.
List the FOUR main ways in which British companies have tried to solve the problem of the language barrier since the 1960s. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 21-24 on your answer sheet.
Questions 25 and 26
Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 25 and 26 on your answer sheet.
25 According to the writer, English-speaking people need to be aware that
A some foreigners have never met an English-speaking person.
B many foreigners have no desire to learn English.
C foreign language may pose a greater problem in the future.
D English-speaking foreigners may have difficulty understanding English.
26 A suitable title for this passage would be
A Overcoming the Language Barrier
B How to Survive an English-speaking World
C Global Understanding—the Key to Personal Progress
D The Need for a Common Language
READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 on the following pages.
Reading Passage 3 has seven paragraphs A-G. From the list of headings below choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-E. Write the appropriate numbers (i- viii) in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all
List of Headings
i A truly international environment
ii Once a port city, always a port city
iii Good ports make huge profits
iv How the port changes a city’s infrastructure
v Reasons for the decline of ports
vi Relative significance of trade and service industry
vii Ports and harbors
viii The demands of the oil industry
27 Paragraph B
28 Paragraph C
29 Paragraph D
30 Paragraph E
Paragraph A vii
What Is a Port City?
The port city provides a fascinating and rich understanding of the movement of people and goods around the world. We understand a port as a center of land-sea exchange, and as a major source of livelihood and a major force for cultural mixing. But do ports all produce a range of common urban characteristics which justify classifying port cities together under a single generic label? Do they have enough in common to warrant distinguishing them from other kinds of cities?
A A port must be distinguished from a harbour. They are two very different things. Most ports have poor harbors, and many fine harbors see few ships. Harbor is a physical concept, a shelter for ships; port is an economic concept, a center of land-sea exchange which requires good access to a hinterland even more than a sea-linked foreland. It is landward access, which is productive of goods for export and which demands imports, that is critical. Poor harbors can be improved with breakwaters and dredging if there is a demand for a port. Madras and Colombo are examples of harbors expensively improved by enlarging, dredging and building breakwaters.
B Port cities become industrial, financial and service centers and political capitals because of their water connections and the urban concentration which arises there and later draws to it railways, highways and air routes. Water transport means cheap access, the chief basis of all port cities. Many of the world’s biggest cities, for example, London, New York, Shanghai, Istanbul, Buenos Aires, Tokyo, Jakarta, Calcutta, Philadelphia and San Francisco began as ports—that is, with land-sea exchange as their major function—but they have since grown disproportionately in other respects so that their port functions are no longer dominant. They remain different kinds of places from non-port cities and their port functions account for that difference.
C Port functions, more than anything else, make a city cosmopolitan. A port city is open to the world. In it races, cultures, and ideas, as well as goods from a variety of places, jostle, mix and enrich each other and the life of the city. The smell of the sea and the harbor, the sound of boat whistles or the moving tides are symbols of their multiple links with a wide world, samples of which are present in microcosm within their own urban areas.
D Sea ports have been transformed by the advent of powered vessels, whose size and draught have increased. Many formerly important ports have become economically and physically less accessible as a result. By-passed by most of their former enriching flow of exchange, they have become cultural and economic backwaters or have acquired the character of museums of the past. Examples of these are Charleston, Salem, Bristol, Plymouth, Surat, Galle, Melaka, Soochow, and a long list of earlier prominent port cities in Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America.
E Much domestic port trade has not been recorded. What evidence we have suggests that domestic trade was greater at all periods than external trade. Shanghai, for example, did most of its trade with other Chinese ports and inland cities. Calcutta traded mainly with other parts of India and so on. Most of any city’s population is engaged in providing goods and services for the city itself. Trade outside the city is its basic function. But each basic worker requires food, housing, clothing and other such services. Estimates of the ratio of basic to service workers range from 1:4 to 1:8.
F No city can be simply a port but must be involved in a variety of other activities. The port function of the city draws to it raw materials and distributes them in many other forms. Ports take advantage of the need for breaking up the bulk material where water and land transport meet and where loading and unloading costs can be minimized by refining raw materials or turning them into finished goods. The major examples here are oil refining and ore refining, which are commonly located at ports. It is not easy to draw a line around what is and is not a port function. All ports handle, unload, sort, alter, process, repack, and reship most of what they receive. A city may still be regarded as a port city when it becomes involved in a great range of functions not immediately involved with ships or docks.
G Cities which began as ports retain the chief commercial and administrative center of the city close to the waterfront. The center of New York is in lower Manhattan between two river mouths, the City of London is on the Thames, Shanghai along the Bund. This proximity to water is also true of Boston, Philadelphia, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Singapore, Bangkok, Hong Kong and Yokohama, where the commercial, financial, and administrative centers are still grouped around their harbors even though each city has expanded into a metropolis. Even a casual visitor cannot mistake them as anything but port cities.
Look at the following descriptions (Questions 31-34) of some port cities mentioned in Reading Passage 3. Match the pairs of cities (A-H) listed below, with the descriptions. Write the appropriate letters A-H in boxes 31-34 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more pairs of port cities than descriptions, so you will not use them all.
31 required considerable harbor development
32 began as ports but other facilities later dominated
33 lost their prominence when large ships could not be accommodated
34 maintain their business centers near the port waterfront
A Bombay and Buenos Aires
B Hong Kong and Salem
C Istanbul and Jakarta
D Madras and Colombo
E New York and Bristol
F Plymouth and Melaka
G Singapore and Yokohama
H Surat and London
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 35-40 on your answer sheet write
YES if the statement agrees with the information
NO if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this in the passage
35 Cities cease to be port cities when other functions dominate.
36 In the past, many cities did more trade within their own country than with overseas ports.
37 Most people in a port city are engaged in international trade and finance.
38 Ports attract many subsidiary and independent industries.
39 Ports have to establish a common language of trade.
40 Ports often have river connections.
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