1．We saw a lot of commercial buildings in Chicago.
A condemned B razed C business D vacant
2．Salt has been a respected commodity for much of recorded time.
A flavoring B preservative C remedy for illnes D article of trade
3．Pure feldspar is a colorless, transparent mineral, but impurities commonly make it opaque and colorful.
A truly B rapidly C periodically D frequently
4．In 1925 Clarence Darrow competently opposed William Jennings Bryan at the renowned Scopes’ “Monkey Trial”.
A adeptly B maliciously C privately D rashly
5．The Olympic Games attempt to transcend national interests and bring together the best international athletes in a spirit of friendly competition and peace.
A debate B celebration C instruction D rivalry
6．Each member of the committee helped to gather the information contained in the report.
A surmount B consig C compil D devise
7．In recent years people have become interested in purchasing gemstones for investment.
A works of arts B rural land C houses D jewels
8．Mosquitoes generally breed in swampy areas.
A always B usually C rarely D never
9．Solar energy is generated as protons fuse to form helium atoms.
A bred B conceived C developed D produced
10．Since rhetoric is the art of calculated polemic and has persuasion as its goal, can it be considered a verbal science?
A competition B objective C subject D core
11．The works of Walt Whitman had a lasting effect on the development of modern American poetry.
A an enduring B an unknown C a startling D a final
12 Not until his play “Beyond the Horizon” was produced was Eugene O’Neill lauded as the foremost creative American playwright.
A compensated B secretly named C given preference D praised
13．A prominent advocate of woman suffrage, Susan B.Anthony lectured throughout the Unites States for the cause of women’s rights.
A raised money B arranged meetings C wrote articles D gave speeches
14．Helen Keller’s achievements as an author and lecturer were an inspiration to millions.
A editor B directo C correspondent D speaker
15．A corporation is a business organization that is formed to act as a single person and is legally endowed with particular rights and duties.
A by word B by law C laudably D liberally
What Is Market?
The word market is used in a number of ways. There is a stock market and an automobile market, a retail market for furniture and a wholesale market for furniture. One person may be going to the market: another may plan to market a product. What then is a market? A market may be defined as a place where buyers and sellers meet, goods or services are offered for sale. and transfers of ownership occur. A market may also be defined as the demand made by a certain group of potential l buyers for a good or service. For instance there is a farm market for petroleum products. The terms market and demand are often used interchangeably; they may also be used jointly as market demand.
These definitions are not sufficiently precise to be useful to us here. For business purposes we define a market as people or organizations with wants (needs) to satisfy, money to spend, and the willingness to spend it. Thus in the market demand for any given product or service, there are three factors to consider—people or organizations with wants(needs),their purchasing power, and their buying behavior.
We shall employ the dictionary definition of needs: the lack of anything that is required, desired, or useful. We do not limit needs to the narrow physiological requirements of food, clothing and shelter essential for survival. In our discussion the words needs and wants are used synonymously and interchangeably. In a strict interpretation, however, needs would refer to such basic physiological requirements as food, clothing, and shelter, while wants would be non—basic preferences. However, In our affluent society, little is to be gained by trying to differentiate between the two. Many of us would see as needs some items that are far beyond food, clothing, and shelter.
16 Markets can be classified according to what is sold on a market and how goods are sold.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
17 The term “market” is preferred by sellers while “demand” is preferred by buyers.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
18 The definition of market for non—business purposes involves three factors: buyers, sellers and goods and services.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
19 The definition of market for business purposes focuses on purchasers.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
20 “Needs” and “wants” mean the same in our discussion.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
21 Strictly speaking,“wants” refers to peoples emotional needs.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
22 In our rich society, it is pointless to separate people’s needs from their wants.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
1 Paris, the capital and the largest city of the country, is in north central France. The Paris metropolitan area contains nearly 20% of the nation’s population and is the economic, cultural, and political center of France. The French governments have historically favored the city as the site for all decision making, thus powerfully attracting nearly all of the nation’s activities.
2 Paris has grown steadily since it was chosen as the national capital in the late 10th century. With the introduction of the Industrial Revolution, a great number of people moved to the city from the country during the 19th century. The migration was especially stimulated by the construction of railroads, which provided easy access to the capital. After World War Ⅱ more and more immigrants arrived.
3 The city is the centralized control point of most national radio and television broadcasting. It is a place of publication of the most prestigious newspapers and magazines and an international book publishing center. With more than 100 museums, Paris has truly been one of the greatest concentrations of art treasures in the world. The Louvre, opened as a museum in 1793,is one of the largest museums in the world.
4 In the late 1980s about 4.1 million pupils annually attended about 47,000 elementary schools. In addition, about 5.4 million students attended some 11,200 secondary schools. Approximately 1.2 million students were enrolled annually at universities and colleges in France in the late 1980s.French centers of learning have served as academic models throughout the world.
5 Paris is the leading industrial center of France, with about one quarter of the nation’s manufacturing concentrated in the metropolitan area. Industries of consumer goods have always been drawn to Paris by the enormous market of the big population, and modern, hightechnology industries also have become numerous since World War Ⅱ.Chief manufactures are machinery, automobiles, chemicals and electrical equipment.
23 Paragraph 2 ＿＿＿＿
24 Paragraph 3 ＿＿＿＿
25 Paragraph 4 ＿＿＿＿
26 Paragraph 5 ＿＿＿＿
A History of the city
B Industries of the city
C Population growth
E Cultural center
27 Paris has in history been the center of ＿＿＿＿
28 Since the 10th century, the population of Paris＿＿＿＿
29 Many valuable works of art ＿＿＿＿
. 30 Paris is not only the center of education of France, but also the center＿＿＿＿
A can be found in Paris
B the major events of the nation
C of the countrys industries
D a lot of cinemas and theatres
E has been growing steadily
F has been decreasing rapidly
第一篇 Citizen Scientists
Understanding how nature responds to climate change will require monitoring key life cycle event—flowering, the appearance of leaves, the first frog calls of the spring—all around the world. But ecologists can’t be everywhere so they’re turning to non—scientists, sometimes called citizen scientists, for help.
Climate scientists are not present everywhere. Because there are so many places in the world and not enough scientists to observe all of them, theyre asking for your help in observing signs of climate change across the world. The citizen scientist movement encourages ordinary people to observe a very specific research interest — birds, trees, flowers budding, etc. and send their observations to a giant database to be observed by professional scientists. This helps a small number of scientists track a large amount of data that they would never be able to gather on their own. Much like citizen journalists helping large publications cover a hyper local beat, citizen scientists are ready for the conditions where they live. All that’s needed to become one is a few minutes each day or each week to gather data and send it in.
A group of scientists and educators launched an organization last year called the National Phe—nology Network. “Phenology” is what scientists call the study of the timing of events in nature.
One of the group’s first efforts relies on scientists and non—scientists alike to collect data about plant flowering and leafing every year. The program, called Project Budburst, collects life cycle data on a variety of common plants from across the United States. People participating in the project—which is open to everyone—record their observations on the Project Budburst website.
“People don’t have to be plant experts —they just have to look around and see what’s in their neighborhood,” says Jennifer Schwartz, an education consultant with the project. “ As we collect this data, we’ll be able to make an estimate of how plants and communities of plants and animals will respond as the climate changes. ”
31 Ecologists turn to nonscientist citizens for help because they need them_________
A．to provide their personal life cycles
B．to observe the life cycle of plants.
C．to collect data of the life cycle of living things
D．to teach children knowledge about climate change.
32 What are citizen scientists asked to do?
A．To develop a specific research interest and become professional scientists.
B．To send their research observations to a professional database.
C．To increase their knowledge about climate change.
D．To keep a record of their research observations.
33 In “All thats needed to become one ... (paragraph2)”, what does the word “one” stands for?
A．a citizen journalist.
B．a citizen scientist.
34 What is NOT true of Project Budburst?
A．Only experts can participate in it.
B．Everybody can participate in it.
C．It collects life cycle data on a variety of common plants.
D．It has its own website.
35 What is the final purpose of Project BudBurst?
A．To study when plants will have their first buds.
B．To find out the types of plants in the neighborhood.
C．To collect life cycle data on a variety of common plants from across the United States.
D．To investigate how plants and animals will respond as the climate changes.
第二篇 Unidentified Flying Object
Unidentified Flying Object (UFO) is any object or light, reportedly sighted in the sky, that cannot be immediately explained by the observer. Sightings of unusual flying objects date back to ancient times, but UFOs (sometimes called flying saucers) became widely discussed only after the first widely publicized U.S sighting in 1947.Many thousands of such observations have since been reported worldwide.
At least 90 percent of UFO sightings can be identified as conventional objects, although time-consuming investigations are often necessary for such identification. The objects most often mistaken for UFOs are bright planets and stars, aircraft, birds, balloons, kites, aorial flares, peculiar clouds, meteors, and satellites. The remaining sightings most likely can be attributed to other mistaken sightings or to inaccurate reporting, tricks, or delusions, although to disprove all claims made about UFOs is impossible.
From 1947 to 1969 the U.S. Force investigated UFOs as a possible threat to national security. A total of 12,618 reports were received, of which 701 reports, or 5.6 percent, were listed as unexplained. The air force concluded that “no UFO reported, investigated, and evaluated by the Air Force has ever given any indication of threat to our national security”
. Since 1969 no agency of the U.S. government has had any active program of UFO investigation.
Some persons, however, believe that UFOs are extraterrestrial spacecraft, even though no scientifically valid evidence supports that belief. The possibility of extraterrestrial civilizations is not the stumbling block; most scientists grant that intelligent life may well exist elsewhere in the universe. A fully convincing UFO photograph has yet to be taken, however, and the scientific method requires that highly speculative explanations should not be adopted unless all of the more ordinary explanations can be ruled out.
UFO enthusiasts persist, however, and some persons even claim to have been captured and taken aboard UFOs. No one has produced scientifically acceptable proof of these claims. Behavioral scientist Carl Sagan once proposed that “certain psychological needs are met by belief in superior beings from other worlds.
36 What was the significance of the UFO sighting in 1947 according to the passage?
A．It was the first evidence showing the existence of intelligent life outside Earth.
B．It helped to explain some sightings of unusual events occurring in the sky.
C．It aroused widespread interest in unidentified flying objects in the sky.
D．It started off a new era of flying saucers in the United States.
37 The second paragraph of the passage focuses on.
A．some explanations about UFO sightings
B．different kinds of UFOs reported
C．peoples negative reaction to UFOs
D．interesting claims made about UFOs
38 According to the passage, which of the following about the UFO investigation by the U.S. Air force is NOT true?
A．About 84 percent of the UFO reports received were explained.
B．UFOs were once regarded as a potential danger to national safety.
C．There was no evidence that the U.S. was being threatened by the reported UFOs.
D．No hard evidence supported the existence of UFOs.
39 According to the passage, the belief that some UFOs are spaceships from some extraterrestrial civilizations .
A has been supported by a convincing UFO photograph
B．would be accepted if it met the requirements of the scientific method
C．has been regarded as some kind of creative thinking
D．has ruled out other explanations about the origin of UFOs
40 Why did Carl Sagan think there are so many UFO enthusiasts?
A．The belief in UFOs gives them psychological satisfaction.
B．The explanation that UFOs are only conventional objects is not attractive.
C．They are strongly influenced by science fiction and science fiction films.
D．Curiosity makes them accept the speculative explanations about UFOs.
第三篇 Use of Trademarks
A company must determine whether or not to apply for trademark protection under the federal Lanham Act of 1946 or state law. A trademark gives a firm exclusive use of a “word, symbol, combination of letters or numbers, or other devices such as distinctive packaging used to identify the goods of one company and to distinguish them from other companies” for as long as they are marketed.
Trademarks are voluntary and require a registration procedure that can be time consuming, complex, and expensive. A multinational firm must register trademarks in every country in which it operates. In order for a trademark to be legally protected, it must have a distinctive meaning that does not describe an entire product category, not be confusingly similar to other trademarks, be used in interstate commerce, and not imply characteristics that the product does not possess. A surname by itself cannot be registered, because anyone can do business under his or her name. However, an surname can be registered if used to describe a specific business (e.g., Roy Rogers Restaurants).
When brands become too popular or descriptive of a product category, they run the risk of becoming public property. Then a firm loses its trademark position. Brands that are fighting to remain exclusive trademarks include Xerox, Levis Frigidaire, Formica, Kleenex, and Teflon. Brands of former trademarks that are now considered generic and therefore public property are cellophane(赛璐芬)，aspirin, kerosene(煤油)，cola, linoleum(漆布)，and monopoly.
DuPont used careful research to retain a trademark for Teflon. As company survey showed that 68 percent of the consumers questioned identified Teflon as a brand name. This enabled DuPont to win a court case against a Japanese firm using the name Teflon. On the other hand, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that “Monopoly”was a generic term that could be used by any game maker. Likewise, a federal court ruled that Miller could not trademark the single word Lite for its lowercalorie(低热量) beer.
Trademark protection is essential to many firms because exclusive use of brands and symbols enables them to maintain longestablished images and market shares.
41 According to the passage, a trademark can .
A．exclude other firms from a business
B．include only one firm in the business
C．help to identify the goods of one firm as exclusive
D．distinguish the goods of one firm from those of other firms
42 Which of the following statements is not true according to te second paragraph?
A．A firm can use a trademark without application for trademark protection.
B．A multinational has different trademarks in different countries in which it operates.
C．A trademark of a product must be so special as to distinguish the product from other similar products
D．A surname can be used as a trademark for a specific business
43 They run the risk of becoming public property. It means one of the following: .
A．They are likely to be used by the general public
B．It is risky for them to be used by the general public
C．It will be dangerous if they become public property
D．They find it risky to become public property
44 Cellophane, aspirin, kerosene , cola, etc, .
A．are under trademark protection
B．are no longer thought of as trademarks
C．are running the risk of becoming public property
D．remain exclusive trademarks
45 In its fight to retain an exclusive trademark for Teflon, one of the things DuPont did is .
A．identifying it as a brand name
B．winning a court case against a Japanese firm
C．carrying out a survey
D．appealing to the Supreme Court
The most common kind of consolidation today is the merger. 46
With the deregulation of natural gas,the nations 20 interstate pipeline companies became fearful of cutthroat competition. 47 In 1985 Internorth of Omaha paid $2.3 billion for Houston Natural Gas Corporation,thereby gaining control of the world’s longest pipeline.The system connected markets from coast to coast and raised sales to $10 billion.
On occasion, mergers have occurred between smaller companies in an industry dominated by a few giant firms. These smaller companies claim that they need to merge to become more efficient and effective in competing against the biggest corporations. 48 The Antitrust Division of the Justice Department has not always agreed with them.
Four major waves of mergers have taken place in this country. The first started in 1887,just prior to the passage of the Sherman Antitrust Act, and ended in 1904.It involved such giants as United States Steel and Standard Oil trying to create monopolies in their industries. From the end of World War I until the 1930s,large firms swallowed smaller firms to create oligopolies. The monopoly has no chance and the oligopoly little chance of succeeding today under present antitrust policy.
The third major merger movement began in the 1960s, reached a peak in 1969,and then gradually declined. Many of the acquisitions involved giant firms in one industry buying up large companies in totally unrelated industries. Such mergers are called conglomerate mergers 49
Mergers in the last ten years were in the thousands. More important is the value of the transactions, which has risen sharply. The number of mergers and acquisitions apply only to those valued at $100 million or more. The petroleum industry had mergers and acquisitions valued at close to $80 billion between 1981 and 1984. 50__
A Some felt that they could increase their efficiency and improve their market flexibility by merging.
B They maintain that such action increases competition instead of reducing it.
C Other industries experiencing large takeovers were banking and finance, insurance, mining and mineral, and processed foods.
D Fierce competition on the international market results in combinations of small firms.
E A classic example is Mobil Oil Corporation’s purchase of the huge retail chain Montgomery Ward & Company.
F A merger occurs when two or more companies get together to form one company.
What Is the Coolest Gas in the Universe?
What is the coldest air temperature ever recorded on the Earth? Where was this low tem- perature recorded?. The coldest recorded temperature on Earth was 91℃, which 51 in Antarctica in1983.
We encounter an interesting situation when we discuss temperatures in 52 Temperatures in Earth orbit actually range from about + t20℃ to 120℃. The temperature depends upon 53 you are in direct sunlight or shade. Obviously, 120℃ is colder than our body can safely endure. Thank NASA science for well—designed space 54 that protect astronauts from these temperature extremes.
The space temperatures just discussed affect only our area1 of the solar 55 . Obviously, it is hotter closer to the Sun and colder as we travel away from the Sun. Astronomers estimate temperatures at Pluto are about 210℃. How cold is the lowest estimated temperature in the entire universe? Again, it depends upon your 56 . We are taught it is supposedly 57 to have a temperature below absolute zero, which is 273℃, at which atoms do not move. Two scientists, whose names are Cornell and Wieman, have successfully cooled down a gas to a temperature barely 58 absolute zero. They won a Nobel Prize in Physics in 2001 for their work—not a discovery, in this case2.
Why is the two scientists work so important to science?
In the 1920s, Satyendra Nath Bose was studying an interesting 59 about special light particles we now call photons. Bose had trouble 60 other scientists to believe his theory, 61 he contacted Albert Einstein. Einstein’s calculations helped him. theorize that atoms 62 behave as Bose thought—but only at very cold temperatures.
Scientists have also discovered that 63 atoms can help them make the world’s atomic docks even more accurate. These clocks are so accurate today they would only lose3 one second 64 six million years! Such accuracy will .help us travel in space because distance is velocity times time4 (d = v x t). With5 the long distances involved in space 65, we need to know time as accurately as possible to get accurate distance.
51．A opened B occurred C opposed D operated
52．A Earth B space C planet D star
53．A whether B where C what D when
54．A foods B beds C tools D suits
55．A wind B energy C system D rays
56．A education B status C knowledge D location
57．A reasonable B wonderful C impossible D necessary
58．A above B below C within D beyond
59．A invention B theory C paper D experiment
60．A convincing B begging C ordering D forcing
61．A and B though C but D so
62．A will B would C must D can
63．A ultra small B ultra fast C ultra hot D ultra cold
64．A any B each C every D some
65．A travel B research C walk D station
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
C D D A D C D B D B A D D
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
D A B A A B B C C A B D
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
D B A E C D A B B A C D C
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52
A C C B D B C A F D B B B
53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65
A D C D C A B A D B D C A
commercial adj. 商业的, 贸易的 (business, mercantile)/homespun adj. 朴素的 (simple)/vacant adj. 未被占用的 (empty, uninhabited)/razed adj. 被夷为平地的 (leveled)
commodity n. 商品；日用品 (article of trade, goods)/remedy n. 补救；治疗法 (treatment, redress)/preservative n. 防腐剂/flavoring n. 调味品, 调料 (seasoning)
commonly adv. 通常地 (frequently, usually)/transparent adj. 透明的 (seethrough)/feldspar n. 【矿】长石 (crystalline mineral rock)/opaque adj. 不透明的 (nontransparent)/periodically adv. 定期地 (intermittently)
competently adv. 充分地 (adeptly, sufficiently)/adeptly adv. 熟练地 (efficiently, skillfully)/maliciously adv. 不怀好意地 (malevolently, wickedly)/rashly adv. 轻率地 (brashly, incautiously)
competition n. 竞争 (rivalry, contention)/athlete n. 运动员 (sportsman)/rivalry. 竞争(competition)； 敌对状态
gather v. 搜集 (compile)/surmount v. 战胜；超越 (overcome, conquer)/consign v. 委托 (authorize, commission)/devise v. 设计 (invent, design)
gemstone n. 宝石 (jewel)
generally adv. 一般地 (usually)/mosquito n. 蚊子/swampyadj. 沼泽的(muddy, marshy)
generate v. 产生 (produce)/solar adj. 太阳的/proton. 【核】 质子/fuse v. 聚变(blend) helium atom 氦原子
goal n. 目标 (objective, aim)/rhetoric n. 修辞学/polemic. 辩论(debate)/verbal adj. 语言的(lexical)
lasting adj. 持久的, 永久的 (enduring)/startling adj. 令人吃惊的 (alarming, astonishing)
laud v. 赞美, 称赞 (praise)/playwright n. 剧作家 (dramatist)/preference n. 偏爱 (choice)
lecture v. 演讲 (give speech)/prominent adj. 著名的 (famous)/suffrage n. 选举权 (voting right)/raise v. 筹集（资金）(collect)
lecturer n. 演讲者 (speaker)/correspondent n. 通讯记者 (journalist)
legally adv. 法律上；合法地 (by law)/endow v. 赋予 (bestow)/laudably adv. 值得赞赏地, 可称赞地 (commendably, praiseworthily)
这里缺的也是句子的谓语动词，第三段里有Paris has truly been one of the greatest concentrations of art treasures in the world 这样一句话。
第二段第三句中encourage ordinary people to observe...的主语是The citizen scientist movement,即公民参与科学观察的运动。所以D不是正确选择。A和C不符合文章的句意，因此也不是正确的选择。这个句子的大意是：这一运动鼓励普通公民根据自己的兴趣爱好进行科学观察，并将观察结果送交数据库，让专门领域的科学家作进一步的观察。B正确表达了这个意思。
one在这里是一个代词，其前置词是citizen scientists，而不是citizen journalists，这里的one指的是one of citizen scientists。所以A、C和D都不正确选择。这个句子的意思是，只要每天或每星期花上几分钟收集数据产发送出去，就能成为一个公民科学家。
文章最后一段说，这个计划向所有的人开放（open to everyone），所以应该选择A。BC，D所述内容都在该段中提到。
第四段说到“科学方法要求不要采用高度推测性的解释除非所有的较为一般性的解释都被排除掉”（the scientific method requires that highly speculative explanations should not be adopted unless all of the more ordinary explanations can be ruled out）,这是选B的依据。
最后一段最后一句Carl Sagan 所说的话是选A 的依据。选项B、C、D文章中没有谈到。
C 和 D 符合原文意义。 A 也符合原文意义。该段第一句说：Trademarks are voluntary...这是说，商标注册是自愿行为。 而B同原文意义有出入。
run the risk of 指“冒……的险”。becoming public property 成为公众(general public)财产。即：为大众所用，符合答案。
答案在第三段最后一句。 这些商标已被认为是 generic,即，普通的，未经商标注册的。C是错误的选择，因为，它们已成为public property.
文章的第四段第一和第二句句子告诉我们，DuPont 公司为确保Teflon商标，进行了调查，调查显示，68%的被询问顾客将Teflon 认做商标名。
上文说-120℃是宇航员无法忍受的温度，下文说美国国家航空和航天管理局生产出某种装置以protect astronauts from these temperature extremes(保护宇航员不受极端温度的侵害)。很明显，这一装置就是"space suits"。
本段第二句说，Bose没有办法使其他的科学家"believe his theory"，所以第一句的studying an interesting之后缺失的词应该是"theory"。
Cornell and Wieman荣获诺贝尔物理奖，是因为他们成功地将气体的温度降到接近绝对零度。本文最后两段以实际例子说明他们的成就推动了科学的发展。因此，ultra-small，ultra-fast和ultra-hot都与Cornell and Wieman的研究无关联，不会是答案。只有ultra-cold才是合乎逻辑的选择。
从句子"These clocks are so accurate today they would only lose one second six million Years !"推断，原子钟如此精确，每隔600万年才慢1秒。"每隔"的英语用词是every。
6 5 A
从地球飞向其他星球的宇宙航程很长，计时越精确，测算宇宙飞行器的即时距离就越精确。本段讲的是精确计时对宇宙航行的重要性。所以，选travel是正确的。本题不能选walk，因为space walk是"太空行走"，指的是宇航员离开飞船在宇宙空间中活动，与space travel是两个不同的概念。