1．The Group of Seven, a clique of Canadian artists painting at the turn of the century, has been credited with arousing a widespread awareness of Canada’s rugged landscape.
A stimulating B prolonging C glorifying D encouraging
2．The term “composition” refers to the way the components of a drawing are arranged by the artist.
A painted B imagined C put together D sharply perceived
3．Located in Washington, D.C, the Library of Congress contains an imposing array of books on every conceivable subject.
A history B catalog C shelf D collection
4．Acetate is one of the most important artificial fibers.
A insulating B synthetic C unadorned D complex
5．Biologists have ascertained that specialized cells convert chemical energy into mechanical energy.
A determined B argued C pretended D hypothesized
6．Groundwater, a resource that exists everywhere beneath the Earth’s surface, is under increasing risk from contamination and overuse.
A popularization B contraction C pollution D industrialization
7．The ability to contemplate two contradictory thoughts at once is said to be a mark of genius.
A hypothetical B profound C opposing D mathematical
8．What he said was contrariwise to what we expected.
A ironic B innate C opposite D circumspect
9．The graduate students will convene in the Student Union.
A converse B meet C summon D raze
10．The new theory was corroborated.
A confirmed B bleached C hurled D refrained
11．The five classic foot positions in ballet are the basis for the ethereal grace of the ballet dancer’s art.
A balanced B traditional C disciplined D delicate
12．Molly Brown was labeled “unsinkable” after she helped to evacuate passengers from the ill fated ship the Titanic.
A anticipate B comfort C remove D shelter
13．The painter Les Quinones, whose graffiti art has been exhibited in New York galleries, has also painted outdoor murals in various Manhattan neighborhoods.
A sold B shown C kept D praised
14．City dwellers are exhilarated by country air.
A amazed B fanned C humbled D stimulated
15．Today in the United States, adult education facilities face rising demand created by expanding leisure time.
A relaxin B structured C increasing D unused
On a Monday morning in July, the world’s first atom bomb exploded in the New Mexico desert. Forty seconds later, the shock waves reached the base camp where the Italian—American physicist Enrico Fermi and his team stood. After a mental calculation, Fermi announced to his team that the bomb’s energy had equated 10,000 tons of TNT. The bomb team was impressed, but not surprised. Fermi’s genius was known throughout the scientific world. In 1938 he had won a Nobel Prize. Four years later he produced the first nuclear chain reaction, leading us into the nuclear age. Since Fermi’s death in 1954,no physicist has been at once a master experimentalist and a leading theoretician.
Like all virtuosos, Fermi had a distinctive style. He preferred the most direct route to an answer. He was very good at dividing difficult problems into small, manageable bits—talent we all can use in our daily lives.
To develop this talent in his students. Fermi would suggest a type of question now known as a Fermi problem. Upon first hearing one of these, you haven’t the remotest notion of the answer ,and you feel certain that too little information had been given to solve it. Yet when the problem is broken into sub—problems, each answerable without the help of experts or books, you can come close to the exact solution.
Suppose you want to determine Earth’s circumference without looking it up. Everyone knows that New York and Los Angeles are about 3,000 miles apart and that the time difference between them is three hours. Three hours is one—eighth of a day, and a day is the time it takes the planet to complete one rotation, so its circumference must be eight times 3,000 or 24,000 miles. This answer differs from the true value, 24,902.45 miles, by less than four percent.
Ultimately the value of dealing with everyday problems the way Fermi did lies in the rewards of making independent discoveries and inventions. It doesn’t matter whether the discovery is as important as determining the power of an atom or as small as measuring the distance between New York and Los Angeles. Looking up the answer, or letting someone else find it, deprives you of the pleasure and pride that accompany creativity, and deprives you of an experience that builds up self—confidence. Thus, approaching personal dilemmas as Fermi problems can become a habit that enriches your life.
16．Fermi’s team was impressed by Fermi’s announcement in the base camp because he could even work out the power of the atom bomb in his mind.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
17．Fermi, an experimentalist as well as a theoretician, won a Nobel Prize for producing the first nuclear chain reaction in the world.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
18．Dividing a big problem into small problems is a talent Fermi had and a talent that has practical value in life.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
19．Fermi problem is to develop the talent of breaking a seemingly unanswerable problem into sub—problems and finding the solution to it, which is a typical Fermi problem.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
20．Then the fourth paragraph tells us how Fermi solved the problem of earth’s circumference without looking up.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
21．The last paragraph concludes the whole writing by stressing the value of important inventions and small discoveries.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
22．Fermi was famous for inventing a device to calculate bomb’s energy accurately.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
1 Voluntary learning in organized courses by mature men and women is called adult education. Such education is offered to make people able to enlarge and interpret their experience as adults. Adults may want to study something which they missed in earlier schooling, get new skills or job training, find out about new technological developments, seek better self—understanding, or develop new talents and skills.
2 This kind of education may be in the form of self-study with proper guidance through the use of libraries, correspondence courses, or broadcasting. It may also be acquired collectively in schools and colleges, study groups, workshops, clubs, and professional associations.
3 Modern adult education for large numbers of people started in the 18th and 19th centuries with the rise of the Industrial Revolution. Great economic and social changes were taking place: people were moving from rural areas to cities, new types of work were being created in an expanding factory system. These and other factors produced a need for further education and re—education of adults.
4 The earliest programs of organized adult education arose in Great Britain in the 1790s, with the founding of an adult school in Nottingham and a mechanics institute in Glasgow. The earliest adult education institution in the United States was founded by Benjamin Franklin and some friends in Philadelphia in 1727.
5 People recognize that continued learning is necessary for most forms of employment today. For example, parts of the adult population in many countries find it necessary to take part in retraining programs at work or even to learn completely new jobs. Adult education programs are springing up constantly to meet these and other needs.
23 Paragraph 2
24 Paragraph 3
25 Paragraph 4
26 Paragraph 5
A Necessity for developing adult education
B Early days of adult education
C Ways of receiving adult education
D Growth of adult education
E Institutions of adult education
F Definition of adult education
27 Some adults want to learn .
28 There are various forms of adult education, including
29 Adult education has been made necessary
30 The earliest organized adult education
A by social and economic changes
B guided self—study and correspondence courses
C by studying together with children
D what they did not manage to learn earlier
E dates back to the eighteenth century
F mass production
第一篇 Mind—reading Machine
A team of researchers in California has developed a way to predict what kinds of objects people are looking at by scanning what’s happening in their brains.
When you look at something, your eyes send a signal about that object to your brain. Different regions of the brain process the information your eyes send. Cells in your brain called neurons are responsible for this processing.
The FMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) brain scans could generally match electrical activity in the brain to the basic shape of a picture that someone was looking at.
Like cells anywhere else in your body, active neurons use oxygen. Blood brings oxygen to the neurons, and the more active a neuron is, the more oxygen it will consume. The more active a region of the brain, the more active its neurons, and in turn, the more blood will travel to that region. And by using FMRI RI, scientists can visualize which parts of the brain receive more oxygen rich blood and therefore, which parts are working to process information.
An FMRI RI machine is a device that scans the brain and measures changes in blood flow to the brain. The technology shows researchers how brain activity changes when a person thinks, looks at something, or carries out an activity like speaking or reading. By highlighting the areas of the brain at work when a person looks at different images, FMRI RI may help scientists determine specific patterns of brain activity associated with different kinds of images.
The California researchers tested brain activity by having two volunteers view hundreds of pictures of everyday objects, like people, animals, and fruits. The scientists used an f FMRI machine to record the volunteers’ brain activity with each photograph they looked at. Different objects caused different regions of the volunteers’ brains to light up on the scan, indicating activity. The scientists used this information to build a model to predict how the brain might respond to any image the eyes see.
In a second test, the scientists asked the volunteers to look at 120 new pictures. Like before, their brains were scanned every time they looked at a new image. This time, the scientists used their model to match the FMRI RI scans to the image. For example, if a scan in the second test showed the same pattern of brain activity that was strongly, related to pictures of apples in the first test, their model would have predicted the volunteers were looking at apples.
31．What is responsible for processing the information sent by your eyes?
A A small region of the brain.
B The central part of the brain.
C Neurons in the brain.
D Oxygen rich blood.
32．Which of the following statements is NOT meant by the writer?
A Cells in your brain are called neurons.
B The more oxygen a neuron consumes， the more blood it needs.
C FMRI helps scientists to discover which parts of the brain process information.
D FMRI helps scientists to discover how the brain develops intelligently.
33．“Highlighting the areas of the brain at work” means
A “marking the parts of the brain that are processing information”
B “giving light to the parts of the brain that are processing information”
C “putting the parts of the brain to work”
D “stopping the parts of the brain from working”
34．What did the researchers experiment on?
A Animals, objects, and fruits.
B Two volunteers.
C FMRI machines.
D Thousands of pictures.
35．Which of the following can be the best replacement of the title?
A The Recent Development in Science and Technology.
B Your Thoughts Can Be Scanned.
C A Technological Dream.
D A Device that can Help You Calculate.
第二篇 Lateral Thinking
Lateral thinking (迂回思维), first described by Edward de Bono in 1967, is just a few years older than Edward’s son. You might imagine that Caspar was raised to be an adventurous thinker, but de Bono name was so famous, Casper’s parents worried that any time he would say something bright at school, his teachers might snap, “Where do you get that idea from?”
“We had to be careful and not overdo it,” Edward admits. Now Casper is at Oxford —— which once looked unlikely because he is also slightly dyslexic (诵读困难). In fact, when he was applying to Oxford, none of his school teachers thought he had a chance.“So then we did several thinking sessions,” his father says, “using my techniques and, when he went up for the exam, he did extremely well.” Soon after, Edward de Bono decided to write his latest book, “Teach Your Children How to Think”, in which he transforms the thinking skills he developed for brain—storming businessmen into informal exercises for parents and children to share.
Thinking is traditionally regarded as something executed in a logical sequence, and everybody knows that children aren’t very logical. So isn’t it an uphill battle, trying to teach them to think? “You know,” Edward de Bono says, “if you examine people’s thinking, it is quite unusual to find faults of logic. But the faults of perception are huge! Often we think ineffectively because we take too limited a view. ”
“Teach Your Child How to Think” offers lessons in perception improvement, of clearly seeing the implications of something you are saying and of exploring the alternatives.
36．What is TRUE about Casper?
A He is Edward’s son.
B He is an adventurous thinker.
C He first described lateral thinking.
D He is often scolded by his teacher.
37．Casper succeeded in applying to Oxford because.
A he was careful and often overworked
B all of his school teachers thought he had a chance
C he used in the exam the techniques provided by his father
D he read the book “Teach Your Child How to Think” before the exam
38．It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that Edward
A was likely to improve children’s logic with his book
B gave a description of lateral thinking several years after his son was born
C was prompted to study lateral thinking because his son was slightly dyslexic
D once taught businessmen how to think before he wrote for parents and children
39．According to Paragraph 3, which of the following statements expresses Edward de Boon’s view?
A Everybody knows that children aren’t very logical.
B It is an uphill battle trying to teach children to think.
C We often think ineffectively because we take too limited a view.
D Thinking is traditionally regarded as something executed in a logical sequence.
40．Lateral thinking refers to the following EXCEPT.
A improving one’s logic in thinking
B improving one’s perception in thinking
C seeing the implications of what you are saying
D exploring the alternatives for what you are saying
第三篇 Global Warming
At the Kyoto conference on global warming in December 1997, it became abundantly clear how complex it has become to work out international agreements relating to the environment because of economic concerns unique to each country. It is no longer enough to try to forbid certain activities or to reduce emissions of certain substances. The global challenges of the interlink between the environment and development increasingly bring us to the core of the economic life of states. During the late 1980s we were able, through international agreements, to make deep cuts in emissions harmful to the ozone layer. These reductions were made possible because substitutions had been found for many of the harmful chemicals and, more important, because the harmful substances could be replaced without negative effects on employment and the economies of states.
Although the threat of global warming has been known to the world for decades and all countries and leaders agree that we need to deal with the problem, we also know that the effects of measures, especially harsh measures taken in some countries, would be nullified (抵消 ) if others countries do not control their emissions. Whereas the UN team on climate change has found that the emissions of carbon dioxide would have to be cut globally by 60% to stabilize the content of CO2 in the atmosphere, this path is not feasible for several reasons. Such deep cuts would cause a breakdown of the world economy. Important and populous (人口众多的) low or medium income countries are not yet willing to undertake legal commitments about their energy uses. In addition, the state of world technology would not yet permit us to make such a big leap.
We must, however, find a solution to the threat of global warming early in the 21st century. Such a commitment would require a degree of shared vision and common responsibilities new to humanity. Success lies in the force of imaginations, in imagining what would happen if we fail to act. Although many living in cold regions would welcome the global warming effect of a warmer summer, few would cheer the arrival of the subsequent diseases, especially where there had been none.
41．The main purpose of this passage is to
A convince people that global warming is a real threat
B criticize some countries for refusing to cut down emissions harmful to the ozone layer
C analyze the problem of global warming
D argue against making deep cuts in emissions
42．The reason why it is difficult to get rid of the threat of global warming is that
A the leaders of many countries are not fully aware of the gravity of the problem
B world technology is not able to solve the problem
C not all the countries are willing to make deep cuts in emissions
D many people welcome the global—warming effect of a warmer summer
43．In the passage the author implies that
A it is always difficult to work out international agreements to cut down emissions harmful to the ozone layer
B it is no longer easy to reach international agreements relating to the environment
C the world had recently become aware of the threat of global warming
D the problem of global warming has largely been solved
44．According to the author, it is impossible at present to cut 60% of carbon dioxide emissions globally because .
A it is only a goal to be reached in the future
B some people are lacking in imagination
C some people are irresponsible
D it would cause to a collapse of the world economy
45．What should all countries do to help solve the problem of global warming?
A They should replace all the harmful substances.
B They should willingly undertake legal commitments about their energy uses.
C They should hold another world conference on climate change.
D They should provide advanced technology.
Development in Newspaper Organization
One of the most important developments in newspaper organization during the first part of the twentieth century 46,which are known as wire services. Wire—service companies employed reporters, who covered stories all over the world. Their news reports were sent to papers throughout the country by telegraph. The papers paid an annual fee for this service. Wire services continue 47. Today the major wire services are the Associated Press (AP) and United Press International (PUI).You will frequently find AP or UPI at the beginning of a news story.
Newspaper chains and mergers began to appear in the early 1900s. A chain consists of two or more newspapers 48A merger involves combining two or more papers into one. During the nineteenth century many cities had more than one competitive independent paper. Today in most cities there are only one or two newspapers, and 49.Often newspapers in several cities belong to one chain. Papers have combined 50. Chains and mergers have cut down production costs and brought the advantages of big—business methods to the newspaper industry.
A to play an important role in newspaper operations
B was the growth of telegraph services
C and they usually enjoy great prestige
D they are usually operated by a single owner
E in order to survive under the pressure of rising costs
F owned by a single person or organization
What Is the Coolest Gas in the Universe?
What is the coldest air temperature ever recorded on the Earth? Where was this low tem- perature recorded?. The coldest recorded temperature on Earth was 91℃, which 51 in Antarctica in1983.
We encounter an interesting situation when we discuss temperatures in 52 Temperatures in Earth orbit actually range from about + t20℃ to 120℃. The temperature depends upon 53 you are in direct sunlight or shade. Obviously, 120℃ is colder than our body can safely endure. Thank NASA science for well—designed space 54 that protect astronauts from these temperature extremes.
The space temperatures just discussed affect only our area1 of the solar 55 . Obviously, it is hotter closer to the Sun and colder as we travel away from the Sun. Astronomers estimate temperatures at Pluto are about 210℃. How cold is the lowest estimated temperature in the entire universe? Again, it depends upon your 56 . We are taught it is supposedly 57 to have a temperature below absolute zero, which is 273℃, at which atoms do not move. Two scientists, whose names are Cornell and Wieman, have successfully cooled down a gas to a temperature barely 58 absolute zero. They won a Nobel Prize in Physics in 2001 for their work—not a discovery, in this case2.
Why is the two scientists work so important to science?
In the 1920s, Satyendra Nath Bose was studying an interesting 59 about special light particles we now call photons. Bose had trouble 60 other scientists to believe his theory, 61 he contacted Albert Einstein. Einstein’s calculations helped him. theorize that atoms 62 behave as Bose thought—but only at very cold temperatures.
Scientists have also discovered that 63 atoms can help them make the world’s atomic docks even more accurate. These clocks are so accurate today they would only lose3 one second 64 six million years! Such accuracy will .help us travel in space because distance is velocity times time4 (d = v x t). With5 the long distances involved in space 65, we need to know time as accurately as possible to get accurate distance.
51．A opened B occurred C opposed D operated
52．A Earth B space C planet D star
53．A whether B where C what D when
54．A foods B beds C tools D suits
55．A wind B energy C system D rays
56．A education B status C knowledge D location
57．A reasonable B wonderful C impossible D necessary
58．A above B below C within D beyond
59．A invention B theory C paper D experiment
60．A convincing B begging C ordering D forcing
61．A and B though C but D so
62．A will B would C must D can
63．A ultra small B ultra fast C ultra hot D ultra cold
64．A any B each C every D some
65．A travel B research C walk D station
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
A C D B A C C C B A D C B
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
D C A B A A B B C C A B D
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
D B A E C D A B B A C D C
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52
A C C B D B B A F D E B B
53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65
A D C D C A B A D B D C A
arouse v. 唤起 (awaken, stimulate)/rugged adj. 崎岖的 (rough, uneven)
arrange v. 整理，摆放 (put together)
array n. 陈列 (display, collection)/conceivable adj. 可能的, 想得到的 (thinkable, imaginable)
artificial adj. 人造的, 假的 (synthetic, unnatural)
ascertain v. 确定 (determine, establish)/pretend v. 假装, 装扮 (feign, mislead)
contamination n. 污染 (pollution)/popularization n. 普及 (making sth. popular)
contradictory adj. 矛盾的 (opposing)
contrariwise adv. 与……相反 (opposite)/innate adj. 先天的 (inborn)/ironic adj. 讽刺的 (satiric, mocking)/circumspect adj. 慎重的 (cautious, watchful)
convene v. 召集 (assemble, meet)/converse vi.交谈 (talk with, speak with)/raze v. 夷为平地 (level)
corroborate v. 证实, 确认 (prove, confirm)/refrain v. 克制 (abstain)/bleach v. 漂白 (whiten, blanch)
ethereal adj. 灵巧的 (delicate)/disciplined adj. 受过训练的；守纪律的 (marked or possessing discipline)
evacuate v. 疏散 (remove)/illfated adj. 恶运的 (unfortunate）/anticipate v. 预见 (foresee)/shelter v. 掩蔽 (hide, conceal)
exhibit v. 陈列 (display, show)/graffito n. graffiti (墙上的) 乱涂乱画 (wall scrawl)/mural n. 壁画, 壁饰 (wall painting)
exhilarate v. 使人兴奋 (stimulate)/humble v. 使……卑下 (degrade)
expanding adj. 扩大的，增加的 (increasing)/facility n. 设施 (building)/leisure adj. 空闲的 (free) ； n. 空闲 (free time)
第二段的第三句是答案的依据。这个句子是：He was very good at dividing difficult problems into small, manageable bits—talent we all can use in our daily lives.
最后一段是全篇的结论，强调了Fermi problem 的价值：the rewards of making independent discoveries and inventions。
has been made necessary被动式的出现说明后面很可能会跟一个by短语，当然从意义上考虑不应该是C。
date是动词，date back to的意思是“追溯到……”。
文章第二段的最后两个句子提供了答案。Cells in your brain called neurons are responsible for this processng. 这里的processing指的就是上句中的内容。
Highlight: 使……显得突出，标出。at work：正在工作的。这里指正在处理信息的（大脑区域）。
根据第三段内容，下列选项能够表达Edward de Bono观点的陈述是： A人人都知道孩子的思维是不太合乎逻辑的；B试图教孩子思维是一场艰苦的战斗；C我们经常不能有效思维是因为我们的视野过于狭隘；D依据传统的观点， 人们认为思维要按照一定的逻辑顺序进行。
本句主语和谓语齐全，填入的owned by a single person or organization是ed分词短语修饰前面的two or more newspapers。
填入的in order to 短语是目的状语，说明报纸合并的目的。
上文说-120℃是宇航员无法忍受的温度，下文说美国国家航空和航天管理局生产出某种装置以protect astronauts from these temperature extremes（保护宇航员不受极端温度的侵害）。很明显，这一装置就是“space suits”。
本段第二句说，Bose没有办法使其他的科学家“believe his theory”，所以第一句的studying an interesting之后缺失的词应该是“theory”。
Wornell and Wieman荣获诺贝尔物理奖，是因为他们成功地将气体的温度降到接近零度。本文最后两段以实际例子说明他们的成就推动了科学的发展。因此，ultra—small，ultra—fst和ultra—“hot都与Cornel and Wieman的研究无关联，不会是答案。只有ultracold才是合乎逻辑的选择。
从句子“These clocks are so accurate today they would only lose one second six million years!”推断，原子钟如此精确，每隔600万年才慢1秒。“每隔”的英语用词是every。
从地球飞向其他星球的宇宙航程很长，计时越精确，测算宇宙飞行器的即时距离就越精确。本段讲的是精确计时对宇宙航行的重要性。所以，选travel是正确的。本题不能选walk，因此space walk是“太空行走”，指的是宇航员离开飞船在宇宙空间中活动，与space travel是两个不同的概念。