Reading 1 hour PART ONE
Questions 1 – 8
Look at the statements below and at the five reports about companies on the opposite page from an article giving advice to self-employed consultants about negotiating fees for their services.
Which book (A, B, C,D or E) dose each statement 1 –8 refer to ?
For each statement ! – 8, make one letter (A, B, C,D or E) on your Answer Sheet .
You will need to use some of these letters more than once .
Lack of self-confidence will put you at a disadvantage in a negotiation .
0 A B C D E
This company has been involved in diversifying its business act6ivities.
Although this company is doing well, it has a number of internal difficulties to deal with
This company has reduced the profits it makes on individual items
One statistic is a less accurate guide to this company’s performance than another
The conditions which have helped this company are likely to be less favourable in the future
This company’s share price has been extremely volatile over the last twelve months
This company is likely to be the subject of a takeover bid in the near future
This company’s performance exemplifies a widely held belief
Masterson’s interim pre-tax profits growth of 20% was somewhat inflated as a result of the income received from the disposal of several of the company’s subsidiaries. The underlying 8% rise in operating profits is a more realistic gauge of the company’s true progress. However, Masterson’s impending merger with Bentley and Knight and its appointment of a new chief executive should mean that the company will be able to sustain growth for the foreseeable fut5ure. The share price has varied little during the course of the year and now stands at ￡ 6.75
During the past year the Bowden Hotel Group has acquired 77 new properties, thus doubling in size . last week the group reported pre-tax profits of ￡ 88 million in the first six months of the year, ahead of expectations and helped by a strong performance from its London-based hotels and newly expanded US business. However. There is still some way to go. Integration of the new acquisitions is still not complete and, while the share price has risen recently, major problems with integration have yet to be solved.
This time last year a share in Usertech was worth just over ￡ 1. six months ago it was worth ￡ 40. today it is priced at under ￡ 8 . if proof were need, here is an illustration of how much of a lottery the technology market can be. But some technology companies are fighting back and Usertech is one of them . What has renewed excitement in the company is the opening of its new American offices in Dallas and its ambitious plans to expand its user base in both North and Latin America.
Renton’s share price has risen gradually over the past year from ￡2.4 to ￡ 3.8 . The company has been successful in choosing prime location for its buildings and has benefited from the buoyant demand for housing. Whilst this demand is expected to slow down somewhat during the next year, investors are encouraged by the company’s decision to move into building supermarkets. Work has already begun on two sites in London, and the company is expected to sign a contract within the next month for building four large supermarkets in Scotland.
Milton Dishes has been through a shake-up over the past year. The group, which has been cutting margins and improving marketing, may post a small profit this year. The many members of the Milton family, who between them own 58 per cent of the business, have been watching the share price rise steadily and several are looking to sell. Trade rival Ruskin has bought up just over 17 percent of the shares and could well be spurred into further action by the signs of a recovery at the firm.
Read the text about career-planning services.
Choose the best sentence from the opposite page to fill each of the gaps .
For each gap 9– 14, mark one letter (A-H) on your Answer Sheet .
Do not use any letter more than once .
There is an example at the beginning .(0)
Your Career Path Can Lead You Anywhere
We used to be advised to plan our careers. We were told to make a plan during the later stages of our education and continue with it through our working lives.(0)_____ some people still see careers in this way. However, to pursue a single option for life has always been unrealistic.
Planning for a single career assumes that we set out with a full understanding of our likes and dislikes and the employment opportunities open to us. (9)____ For most people this degree of certainty about the future does not exist.
Our initial choice of career path and employer is often based on inadequate knowledge and false perceptions. But with age and experience, we develop new interests and aptitudes and our priorities alter. The structure of the employment market and, indeed of employment itself, is subject to change as both new technologies and new work systems are introduced (10) _____ We must face the uncertainties of a portfolio career.
It is clear from the recent past that we cannot foresee the changes which will affect our working lives. The pace of change is accelerating , as a result of which traditional career plans will be of very limited use. (11)_____ They will need updating to reflect changes in our own interests as well as in the external work environment. Flexible workers already account for about half the workforce. (12)______ We are likely to face periods as contract workers, self-employed freelances, consultants, temps or part-timers.
Many employers encourage staff to write a personal development development (PDP) (13) Although some people use it only to review the skills needed for their job, a PDP could be the nucleus of wider career plan –setting out alternative long-term learning needs and a plan of self-development.
A report issued by the Institute of Employment Studies advises people to enhance their employability by moving from traditional technical skills towards the attainment of a range of transferable skills. (14) Instead, special schemes should be established to encourage people to examine their effectiveness and to consider a wider range of needs.
0 A B C D E F G H
A This dual effect means that the relationship between employers and workers has evolved to such and extent that we can no longer expect a long-term relationship with one employer.
B. It carries an implicit assumption that we ourselves, and the jobs we enter, will change little during our working lives.
C. This growth suggests that a career plan should not be expressed only in terms of full-time employment but should make provision for the possibility of becoming one of the.
D this is a summary of one’s personal learning needs and an action plan to meet them.
E Consequently, they must now accommodate a number of objectives and enable us to prepare for each on a contingency basis.
F However, it warns that employers often identify training needs through formal appraisals, which take too narrow a view of development.
G . Such a freelance of consultant would be constantly in demand.
H We were expected to work towards that one clear goal and to consider a career change as a bad thing.
Questions 15– 20
Read the following article on negotiating techniques and the question on the opposite page .
For each question 15 – 20 , mark one letter (A, B, C or D ) on your Answer Sheet for the answer you choose.
The Negotiating Table:
You can negotiate virtually anything. Projects, resources, expectations and deadlines are all outcomes of negotiation. Some people negotiate deals for a living. Dr Herb Cohen is one of these professional talkers, called in by companies to negotiate on their behalf . He approaches the art of negotiation as a game because, as he is usually negotiating for somebody else, he says this helps him drain the emotional content from his conversation. He is working in a competitive field and needs to avoid being too adversarial. Whether he succeeds or not, it is important to him to make a good impression so that people will recommend him.
The starting point for any deal, he believes, is to identify exactly what you want from each other. More often than not, one party will be trying to persuade the other round to their point of view. Negotiation requires two people at the end saying ‘yes”. This can be a problem because one of them usually begins by saying “no”. However, although this can make talks more difficult, this is often just a starting point in the negotiation game. Top management may well reject the idea initially because it is the safer option but they would not be there if they were not interested.
It is a misconception that skilled negotiators are smooth operators in smart suits. Dr Cohen says that one of his strategies is to dress down so that the other side can relate to you. Pitch your look to suit your customer. You do not need to make them feel better than you but, For example, dressing in a style that is not overtly expensive or successful will make you more approachable. People will generally feel more comfortable with somebody who appears to be like them rather than superior to them. They may not like you but they will feel they can trust you.
Dr Cohen suggests that the best way to sell your proposal is by getting into the world of the other side. Ask questions rather than give answers and take an interest in what the other person is saying, even if you think what they are saying is silly. You do not need to become their best friends but being too clever will alienate them. A lot of deals are made on impressions. Do not rush what you are saying---put a few hesitations in , do not try to blind them with your verbal dexterity. Also, you should repeat back to them what they have said to show you take them seriously.
Inevitably some deals will not succeed. Generally the longer the negotiations go on, the better chance they have because people do not want to think their investment and energies have gone to waste. However , joint venture can mean joint risk and sometimes , if this becomes too great , neither party may be prepared to see the deal through . More common is a corporate culture clash between companies, which can put paid to any deal. Even having agreed a deal, things may not be tied up quickly because when the lawyers get involved, everything gets slowed down as they argue about small details.
De Cohen thinks that children are the masters of negotiation. Their goals are totally selfish. They understand the decision-making process within families perfectly. If Mum refuses their request , they will troop along to Dad and pressure him. If al else fails, they will try the grandparents, using some emotional blackmail. They can also be very single-minded and have an inexhaustible supply of energy for the cause they are pursuing. So there are lesson to be learned from watching and listening to children.
15 Dr Cohen treats negotiation as a game in order to
A put people at ease
B remain detached
C be competitive
D impress rivals
16 Many people say “no” to a suggestion in the beginning to
A convince the other party of their point of view
B show they are not really interested
C indicate they wish to take the easy option
D protect their company’s situation
17 Dr Cohen says that when you are trying to negotiate you should
A adapt your style to the people you are talking to
B make the other side feel superior to you
C dress in a way to make you feel comfortable.
D try to make the other side like you
18 According to Dr Cohen, understanding the other person will help you to
A gain their friendship
B speed up the negotiations
C plan your next move.
D convince them of your point of view
19 Deals sometimes fail because
A negotiations have gone on too long
B the companies operate in different ways
C one party risks more than the other.
D the lawyers work too slowly
20 Dr Cohen mentions children’s negotiation techniques to show that you should
A be prepared to try every route
B try not to make people feel guilty
C be careful not to exhaust yourself
D control the decision-making process.
Questions 21 -30
Read the article below about the methods some companies are now using for recruitment.
Choose the correct word to fill each gap from (A, B, C or D) on the opposite page.
For each question 21-30,mark one letter (A, B, C or D) on your Answer Sheet.
There is an example at the beginning, (0)
The Scientific Approach to Recruitment
When it (0) to selecting candidates through interview, more often than not the decision is made within the first five minutes of a meeting. Yet employers like to (21) themselves that they are being exceptionally thorough in their selection processes. In today’s competitive market place, the (22) of staff in many organizations is fundamental to the company’s success and, as a result , recruiters use all means at their disposal to (23) the best in the field.
One method in particular that has (24) in popularity is testing , either psychometric testing, which attempts to define psychological characteristics , or ability￡aptitude testing (25) an organization with an extra way of establishing a candidate’s suitability for a role. It (26) companies to add value by identifying key elements of a position and then testing candidates to ascertain their ability against those identified elements.
The employment of psychometric or ability testing as one (27) of the recruitment process may have some merit, but in reality there is no real (28), scientific or otherwise, of the potential future performance of any individual. The answer to this problem is experience in interview techniques and strong definition of the elements of each position to be (29) as the whole recruitment process is based on few real certainties, the instinctive decisions that many employers make, based on a CT and the first five minutes of a meeting, are probably no less valid than any other tool employed in the (30) of recruitment.
A have B decide C do D make
0 A B C D
21.A suggest B convince C advise D believe
22.A worth B credit C quality D distinction
23.A secure B relies C attain D achieve
24.A lifted B enlarged C expanded D risen
25.A provides B offers C contributes D gives
26.A lets B enables C agrees D admits
27. A portion B member C share D component
28. A extent B size C amount D measure
29.A occupied B met C filled D appointed
30 A business B topic C point D affair
Questions 31 -40
Read the article below about a very expensive new perfume. .
For each question 31-40, write one word in CAPITAL LETTERS on your Answer Sheet .
There is an example at the beginning, (0)
Sweet smell of excess-for just ￡ 47.874 a bottle
The marketing says it is the “ ultimate symbol of indulgence and truly impeccable taste”. A new scent, named V1, has (0) launched for Christmas-retailing at just ￡47.874 . The makers are proudly promoting it (31) ,the “ world’s most expensive perfume” and are confident of selling the limited edition of 173 bottles-(32) it should be exactly 173 bottles is not made clear in the publicity for the product.
Although carefully priced at just under the ￡50.000 mark, this perfume is clearly (33) something for anyone who considers ￡30 too much to pay for a bottle of eau-de-toilette. Those (34) are potential customers will certainly be reassured to learn that a case covered in rubies and diamonds is included free (35) charge. Purchasers are assured of further savings, with unlimited scent refills guaranteed indefinitely- at no extra cost.
The fragrance is the idea of Arfaq Hussain, a 27-year-old clothes designer who first made a name (36) himself with an air-conditioned jacket he was asked to make by the singer Michael Jackson (37) far, Mr Jackson is the only person to (38) placed an order- he wants two, according to Mr Hussain.
Mr Hussain is unconcerned at having no previous experience of perfumery . “ It’s so (39) more than a perfume ---- it’s a piece of jewellery, too. “ “ explained Mr Hussain. He attempted to describe the ￡47.874 sensation . “ it is delicate , fragrant and quite unique. When you open the lid, it takes you totally away . It’s just (40) being surrounded by thousands of wild flowers and roses.
Questions41 - 52
Read the text below about team-based pay
In most of the lines 41 - 52 there is one extra word. It is either grammatically incorrect of does not fit in with the sense of the text. Some lines, however,are correct .
If a line is correct, write CORRECT on your Answer Sheet.
If there is an extra word in the line ,write the extra word in CAPITAL LETTERS on your Answer Sheet .
The exercise begins with two examples, (0) and (00) .
0 Team-based pay schemes that have been catching the eye of modern employers.
00 Supporters say that they encourage group endeavour and improve 41 organizational performance. But salespeople, typically the most self-motivated
42 of workers, they have traditionally been rewarded according to individual
43 performance. So are team-based schemes suitable ? The key issue is
44 whether team-based pay is more being in line with the organization’s objectives
45 than pay which based on individual achievement. Introducing a team pay
46 scheme can be complex. The biggest problem is for defining the team in the first
47 place. Another is that team pay schemes won’t work if the actions
48 individual make no impact on those of another. You should need a true team.
49 like a football team. Where all the members are interdependent. When sales staff
50 can be less receptive to team pay schemes because personal motivation can
51 be an important boost to performance What they need is their encouragement
52 to perceive that the wider term of the company overall : production, administration and dispatch all affect each other.
Writing 1 hour 10 minutes
●The graphs below show the performance of a European country’s manufacturing and agricultural
Sectors in terms of exports and imports between 1991 and 2001.
●Using the information from the graphs, write a short report describing the general movements in exports, imports and the resulting balance of trade
●Write 120-140 words
Write an answer to ONE of the questions 2-4 in this part. Write your answer in 200-250 words.
●The Managing Director of your company or organization has announced that reports on performance are to be produced by all departments. Your Hear of Department has asked you to produce the report about your department for the Managing Director.
●Write the report for the Managing Director, explaining:
A What aspects of your department function most effectively
B Which aspect is most in need of improvement
C How this improvement could be achieved
●You work for an employment agency. The following is part of a letter you have received from a customer:
The temporary administrative assistant you sent us was totally unacceptable. I certainly will not be using your agency again when I need temporary staff.
●Write a letter to the customer:
A apologising for having sent the unsatisfactory temporary worker
B giving reasons for what happened
C explaining why what happened was exceptional
D offering some sort of compensation to the customer
●Your Managing Director has decided that the company’s website should be improved and has asked you to consider ways of going about this.
●Write a proposal for the Managing Director:
A Sunmarising the strengths and weaknesses the current website
B suggesting new services and information to be provided through the website
C explaining the benefits the improvements would bring.
●You will hear a consultant giving a talk to a group of UK business people about exporting to the United Arab Emirates (UAE)
●As you listen, for questions 1-12. complete the notes, using up to three words or a number.
●.After you have listened once, replay the recording.
The business Master Class
Arrangements for participants
1 The event will take place over
2 Seminar organized by
3 The title of the last session will be
4 To use the New City Hotel car park, delegates must obtain a
5 Dr Sangalli has advised many
6 The name of his consultancy is
7 He is the author of
8 In Europe, he is the best-known
The Business Master Class
9 to become more
10 to establish new
Two outcomes of session:
11 design your own
12 take away documents containing actual
●You will here five different business people talking about trips they have recently been on.
A to supervise staff training
B to hold job interviews
C to introduce new policy
D to visit possible new premises
E to observe working practices
F to meet a new manager
G to sign a new contract
H to deal with a complaint
●For question 18-22, match the extracts with the problem, listed A –H
●For each extract, choose the problem described
● write one letter (A-H) next to the number of the extract
A I forgot a document
B My hotel was noisy
C I was late for meeting.
D I didn’t understand some figures.
E The service at my hotel was bad.
F I had some wrong information
G I didn’t have an interpreter.
H I experienced computer problems.
●You will hear part of a conversation between a management consultant and the Human Resources manager of Jenkins, a company which manufactures children’s clothing.
23 What is said about the ownership of Jenkins?
A the founder has sold the company to someone else.
B Jenkins has merged with another company
C There has been no change of ownership.
24 What does the Human Resources manager see as the main external threat to Jenkins?
A Their retailers are becoming less willing to pay their prices.
B Consumers are buying more top-of-the-range children’s clothes.
C More and more companies are producing children’s clothes.
25 The Human Resources manager sees the company’s main strength as the fact that
A It has several long-term contracts
B it makes products of high quality
C its distribution system is efficient
26 The Human Resources manager believes that Jenkins’ main weakness at present is that
A the machinery is inadequate for current requirements
B the management style is out of line with modern demands
C the relation between management and workers are poor.
27 According to the Human Resources manager, why do many machinists choose to leave?
A They think that they can get better paid work elsewhere.
B They feel that too much is expected of them
C They lack confidence in the company’ future
28 When working to produce a batch of clothes
A each team is responsible for a particular operation
B each member of the team produces a complete item
C each person carries out one part of the production process
29. What change has been made to range of goods?
A A smaller number of items is produced
B Each item is now made in smaller quantities.
C Fewer new styles are introduced each year.
30 What is said about the machinists?
A More of their work is falling below the required standard.
B Some of them are earning less than they used to.
C They have to spend longer learning to operate new machines.
That is the end of the Listening test. You now have ten minutes to transfer your answers
Speaking 16 minutes
In this part, the interlocutor asks question on a number of work-related and non-work related subjects to each candidate in turn. You have to give information about yourself and express personal opinions.
The candidate chooses one topic and speaks about it for approximately one minute. One minute’s preparation time is allowed.
A Customer relations: the importance of making customers feel valued
B company growth : the importance to a company of controlling expansion
C Marketing: how to ensure that agents maintain a high level of effectiveness when representing a company
In this part of the test, candidates are given a topic to discuss and are allowed 30 seconds to look at the prompt card, before talking together for about three minutes.
Afterwards, the examiner asks more questions related to the topic.
For two candidates
Staff Suggestion Scheme
Your company is planning to introduce a suggestion scheme and to encourage members of staff at all levels to contribute ideas. You have been asked to consider ways of setting up the scheme.
Discuss, and decide together:
●How to set up the scheme so that all staff feel they can contribute
●How suggestions from members of staff could be evaluated.
For three candidates
Staff suggestion scheme:
You company is planning to introduce a suggestion scheme and to encourage members of staff at all levels to contribute ideas. You have been asked to consider ways of setting up the scheme.
Discuss, and decide together:
●How to set up the scheme so that all staff feel they can contribute
●How suggestions from members of staff could be evaluated
●What kinds of rewards would be suitable for suggestions made.
Follow-on questions ：
●Which kinds of companies can benefit most from suggestion schemes?
(why?)●What other methods can companies use to generate ideas for improvements?
●What other ways are there of increasing staff involvement in a company?
●In what ways can companies obtain suggestion or comments from customers?
●How important are new ideas for companies in maintaining competitiveness? Why?
Test 1 Reading
1 D 2 B 3 E 4 A 5 D 6 C 7 E 8 C
9 B 10 A 11E 12C 13D 14F
15 B16D 17A 18D19B 20 A
21 B 22C 23 A 24 D25 A
26-30 B D D C A
31- 35 AS WHY NOT/ HARDLY WHO/ THAT OF
36-40 FOR SO/ THUS HAVE MUCH LIKE
41-45 CORRECT THEY CORRECT BEING WHICH
46-50 FOR CORRECT SHOULD WHEN CORRECT
51-52 THEIR THAT
This report describes the movements of the balance of trade between 1991 and 2001 , for a particular country, concerning manufacturing and agriculture.
Imports increased constantly during this period. The figure shows a rise of $ 4 bn within the whole period and no fluctuations are to be remarked.
Exports rose from nearly $ 3 bn in 1991 to approximately $7 bn in 2001 , suffering minor fluctuations all the way through. In general, the balance of trade remained slightly positive through the period considered.
Imports increased slightly, ending the period around $1 bn over their starting level. They suffered a temporary fall between 1992 and 1994 , followed by a steady recovery. After peaking at around $2.5 bn in 1999, imports fell slightly to their final value.
Exports figure shows the same performance although at level $4bn higher than imports.
Consequently, the balance of trade remained markedly positive throughout the period.
All content points are included. There is a relatively natural use of language and a good range of structure, despite some inaccuracy. There is also evidence of a wide range of vocabulary and the report is well organized.
The aim of this report is to describe the imports an exports of the Manufacturing and Agricultural sectors in the years 1991-2001 in European contry’s
In the first year (1991) the imports were just above $2 bn, at the end of 2001, the imports were almost on the $ 6 bn.
In 1991 were just below the $ 3
1 THREE DAYS
2 CLOBAL CONFERENCES PLC
FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION
F C D B E A B F C D
C A B C B C B A