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  Time –30 minutes

  38 Questions

  1. Because the monkeys under study are ---- the

  presence of human beings, they typically ----

  human observers and go about their business

  (A) ambivalent about .. welcome

  (B) habituated to .. disregard

  (C) pleased with .. snub

  (D) inhibited by .. seek

  (E) unaware of .. avoid

  2. Give he previously expressed interest and the

  ambitious tone of her recent speeches, the senator’s

  attempt to convince the public that she is not inter-

  ested in running for a second term is ----.

  (A) laudable

  (B) likely

  (C) authentic

  (D) futile

  (E) sincere

  3. Many of her followers remain ---- to her, and

  even those who have rejected her leadership are

  unconvinced of the ---- of replacing her during

  the current turmoil.

  (A) opposed.. urgency

  (B) friendly.. harm

  (C) loyal.. wisdom

  (D) cool.. usefulness

  (E) sympathetic.. disadvantage

  4. Unlike many recent interpretations of Beethoven’s

  piano sonatas, the recitalist’s performance was a

  delightfully free and introspective one; nevertheless,

  it was also, seemingly paradoxically, quite ----.

  (A) appealing

  (B) exuberant

  (C) idiosyncratic

  (D) unskilled

  (E) controlled

  5. Species with relatively ---- metabolic rates, including

  hibernators, generally live longer than those whose

  metabolic rates are more rapid.

  (A) prolific

  (B) sedentary

  (C) sluggish

  (D) measured

  (E) restive

  6. Belying his earlier reputation for ---- as a negotiator,

  Morgan had recently assumed a more ---- stance

  for which many of his erstwhile critics praised him.

  (A) intransigence.. conciliatory

  (B) impropriety.. intolerant

  (C) inflexibility.. unreasonable

  (D) success.. authoritative

  (E) incompetence.. combative

  7. Although Irish literature continued to flourish after

  the sixteenth century, a ---- tradition is ----

  in the visual arts: we think about Irish culture in terms of

  the word, not in terms of pictorial images.

  (A) rich.. superfluous

  (B) lively.. found

  (C) comparable.. absent

  (D) forgotten.. apparent

  (E) lost.. extant


  (A) gold: burnish

  (B) steel: forge

  (C) iron: rust

  (D) lead: cast

  (E) tin: shear


  (A) appreciation: gratification

  (B) hunger: appetite

  (C) void: dearth

  (D) pleasure: bliss

  (E) pain: ache


  (A) unruly: energetic

  (B) listless: attractive

  (C) volatile: constant

  (D) deft: trifling

  (E) awkward: amusing

  11. FILLY: HORSE::

  (A) antennae: butterfly

  (B) pullet: chicken

  (C) gaggle: goose

  (D) duck: drake

  (E) wasp: bee


  (A) craft: art

  (B) detail: sketch

  (C) illusion: story

  (D) exaggeration: caricature

  (E) sophistication: farce


  (A) infirm: healing

  (B) insensitive: cooperating

  (C) inanimate: living

  (D) interminable: continuing

  (E) ineffectual: proceeding


  (A) brat: insolent

  (B) hypocrite: perceptive

  (C) grouch: respected

  (D) bigot: tolerant

  (E) rogue: empathetic


  (A) precocious: learning

  (B) unbecoming: color

  (C) exemplary: conduct

  (D) craven: timidity

  (E) antic: behavior


  (A) quotation: misdirect

  (B) investigation: confirm

  (C) stamina: deplete

  (D) turbulence: upset

  (E) impossibility: execute

  This is not to deny that the Black gospel music of the

  early twentieth century differed in important ways from the

  slave spirituals. Whereas spirituals were created and dis-

  seminated in folk fashion, gospel music was composed,

  (5) published, copyrighted, and sold by professionals. Never-

  theless, improvisation remained central to gospel music.

  One has only to listen to the recorded repertoire of gospel

  songs to realize that Black gospel singers rarely sang a

  song precisely the same way twice and never according to

  (10)its exact musical notation. They performed what jazz musi-

  cians call "head arrangements" proceeding from their own

  feelings and from the way "the spirit" moved them at the

  time. This improvisatory element was reflected in the man-

  ner in which gospel music was published. Black gospel

  (15)composers scored the music intended for White singing

  groups fully, indicating the various vocal parts and the

  accompaniment, but the music produced for Black singers

  included only a vocal line and piano accompaniment.

  17.Which of the following best describes "head arrange-

  ment" as the term is used in line 11?

  (A) A published version of a gospel song produced for

  use by Black singers

  (B) A gospel song based on a slave spiritual

  (C) A musical score shared by a gospel singer and a

  jazz musician

  (D) An informally written composition intended for

  use by a gospel singer

  (E) An improvised performance inspired by the

  singer’s emotions

  18.The author mentions "folk fashion" (line 4) most likely

  in order to

  (A) counter an assertion about the role of improvi-

  sation in music created by Black people

  (B) compare early gospel music with gospel music

  written later in the twentieth century

  (C) make a distinction between gospel music and

  slave spirituals

  (D) introduce a discussion about the dissemination of

  slave spirituals

  (E) describe a similarity between gospel music and

  slave spirituals

  19.The passage suggests which of the following about

  Black gospel music and slave spirituals?

  (A) Both became widely known in the early twentieth


  (B) Both had an important improvisatory element.

  (C) Both were frequently performed by jazz


  (D) Both were published with only a vocal line and

  piano accompaniment.

  (E) Both were disseminated chiefly by Black singing


  20.Of the following sentences, which is most likely to

  have immediately preceded the passage?

  (A) Few composers of gospel music drew on traditions

  such as the spiritual in creating their songs.

  (B) Spirituals and Black gospel music were derived

  from the same musical tradition.

  (C) The creation and singing of spirituals, practiced by

  Black Americans before the Civil War, continued

  after the war.

  (D) Spirituals and gospel music can be clearly

  distinguished from one another.

  (E) Improvisation was one of the primary charac-

  teristics of the gospel music created by Black


  About a century ago, the Swedish physical scientist

  Arrhenius proposed a law of classical chemistry that relates

  chemical reaction rate to temperature. According to the

  Arrhenius equation, chemical reaction are increasingly

  (5) unlikely to occur as temperatures approach absolute zero,

  and at absolute zero (zero degrees Kelvin, or minus 273

  degrees Celsius) reactions stop. However, recent experi-

  mental evidence reveals that although the Arrhenius equa-

  tion is generally accurate in describing the kind of chemical

  (10)reaction that occurs at relatively high temperatures, at tem-

  peratures closer to zero a quantum- mechanical effect known

  as tunneling comes into play; this effect accounts for chem-

  ical reactions that are forbidden by the principles of classi-

  cal chemistry. Specifically, entire molecules can "tunnel"

  (15)through the barriers of repulsive forces from other mole-

  cules and chemically react even though these molecules do

  not have sufficient energy, according to classical chemistry,

  to overcome the repulsive barrier.

  The rate of any chemical reaction, regardless of the tem-

  (20)perature at which it takes place, usually depends on a very

  important characteristic known as its activation energy. Any

  molecule can be imagined to reside at the bottom of a so-

  called potential well of energy. A chemical reaction corre-

  sponds to the transition of a molecule from the bottom of

  (25)one potential well to the bottom of another. In classical

  chemistry, such a transition can be accomplished only by

  going over the potential barrier between the wells, the

  height of which remains constant and is called the activa-

  tion energy of the reaction. In tunneling, the reacting mole-

  (30)cules tunnel from the bottom of one to the bottom of another

  well without having to rise over the barrier between the

  two wells. Recently researchers have developed the concept

  of tunneling temperature: the temperature below which

  tunneling transitions greatly outnumber Arrhenius transi-

  (35)tions, and classical mechanics gives way to its quantum


  This tunneling phenomenon at very low temperatures

  suggested my hypothesis about a cold prehistory of life:

  the formation of rather complex organic molecules in the

  (40)deep cold of outer space, where temperatures usually reach

  only a few degrees Kelvin. Cosmic rays (high-energy pro-

  tons and other particles) might trigger the synthesis of

  simple molecules, such as interstellar formaldehyde, in

  dark clouds of interstellar dust. Afterward complex organic

  (45)molecules would be formed, slowly but surely, by means

  of tunneling. After I offered my hypothesis, Hoyle and

  Wickramasinghe argued that molecules of interstellar form-

  aldehyde have indeed evolved into stable polysaccharides

  such as cellulose and starch. Theirconclusions, although

  (50)strongly disputed, have generated excitement among inves-

  tigators such as myself who are proposing that the galactic

  clouds are the places where the prebiological evolution of

  compounds necessary to life occurred.

  21.The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

  (A) describing how the principles of classical chem-

  istry were developed

  (B) initiating a debate about the kinds of chemical

  reactions required for the development of life

  (C) explaining how current research in chemistry may be

  related to broader biological concerns

  (D) reconciling opposing theories about chemical reac-


  (E) clarifying inherent ambiguities in the laws of clas-

  sical chemistry

  22.According to the passage, classical chemical reactions

  and tunneling reactions are alike in which of the fol-

  lowing ways?

  (A) In both types of reactions, reacting molecules have

  to rise over the barrier between the two wells.

  (B) In both types of reactions, a transition is made

  from the bottom of one potential well to the

  bottom of another.

  (C) In neither type of reaction does the height of the

  barrier between the wells remain constant.

  (D) In neither type of reaction does the rate of a

  chemical reaction depend on its activation


  (E) In both types of reactions, reacting molecules are

  able to go through the barrier between the two wells.

  23. According to the Arrhenius equation as discussed in

  the passage, which of the following statements about

  chemical reactions is true?

  (A) Chemical reactions are less likely to occur at tem-

  peratures close to absolute zero.

  (B) In some cases the rate of a chemical reaction is

  related to temperature and in other cases it is


  (C) Chemical reactions frequently occur at a few

  degrees above absolute zero, but they are very


  (D) The rate of a chemical reaction depends on many

  other factors besides temperature.

  (E) Chemical reaction rate and temperature are not


  24.The author’s attitude toward the theory of a cold pre-

  history of life can best be described as

  (A) neutral

  (B) skeptical

  (C) mildly positive

  (D) very supportive

  (E) pointedly critical

  25.The author’s hypothesis concerning be cold prehistory

  of life would be most weakened if which of the follow-

  ing were true?

  (A)Cosmic rays are unlikely to trigger the formation of

  simple molecules.

  (B)Tunneling occurs only in a narrow band of tem-

  peratures around zero degrees Kelvin.

  (C)The synthesis of interstellar formaldehyde can be

  activated by means other than cosmic rays.

  (D)Simple molecules can be synthesized by means of


  (E)Classical chemical reactions do not occur at tem-

  peratures close to absolute zero.

  26.Which of the following best describes the hypothesis

  of Hoyle and Wickramasinghe as it is presented in the


  (A) Cosmic rays can directly synthesize complex

  organic molecules.

  (B) The galactic clouds are the places where prebio-

  logical evolution of compounds necessary to life


  (C) Interstellar formaldehyde can be synthesized by


  (D) Molecules of interstellar formaldehyde can evolve

  into complex organic molecules.

  (E) Complex organic molecules can be synthesized

  from stable polysaccharides such as cellulose and


  27.Which of the following best describes the organization

  of the first two paragraphs of the passage?

  (A) The author cites a basic principle of classical

  chemistry and then describes the research from

  which that principle was developed.

  (B) The author cites an apparent contradiction to

  the principles of classical chemistry and then

  explains the process of a chemical reaction to

  show there is in fact no contradiction.

  (C) the author describes the role of heat in chemical

  reactions and then offers a detailed explanation

  of its function.

  (D) The author presents a law of classical chemistry in

  order to introduce a kind of chemical reaction

  that differs from it and then explains the essen-

  tial difference between the two.

  (E) The author presents the fundamental rules of clas-

  sical chemistry in order to introduce an explana-

  tion of a specific chemical reaction.

  28. PREFACE:

  (A) improvisation

  (B) burlesque

  (C) epilogue

  (D) tangent

  (E) backdrop


  (A) implicate

  (B) invigorate

  (C) obfuscate

  (D) realign

  (E) encumber

  30. TASTY:

  (A) uninteresting

  (B) unfamiliar

  (C) unexpected

  (D) understated

  (E) undervalued


  (A) refresh

  (B) reaffirm

  (C) relieve

  (D) react

  (E) reform

  32. SERRIED:

  (A) partially formed

  (B) widely separated

  (C) narrowly missed

  (D) extremely grateful

  (E) reasonably clean


  (A) unflappable

  (B) uninspired

  (C) unpretentious

  (D) inscrutable

  (E) incisive

  34. BANAL:

  (A) comfortable

  (B) novel

  (C) equal

  (D) fatal

  (E) competent


  (A) agitate

  (B) wander

  (C) relieve

  (D) discomfit

  (E) thrive

  36. ENNUI:

  (A) intimidation

  (B) sleaze

  (C) faint recollection

  (D) keen interest

  (E) deep reservation


  (A) sophomoric

  (B) trifling

  (C) pusillanimous

  (D) specious

  (E) parsimonious


  (A) credibility

  (B) authority

  (C) celebrity

  (D) acrimony

  (E) circumspection



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