For some it is a career, for others a pastime. It requires skill, patience and precision. This issue of Sport explores the world of Snooker. Read on to learn more about this fascinating sport.
Some of the most important snooker terms:
Angles - the lines created to the pockets between balls
角度 – 在球袋和球之间形成的线路
Break - a sequence of scoring shots - the number of points scored in one go
一杆球 – 连续击球得分，即击打一杆后所得的总分
Backspin - the effect of striking the cue ball below centre
缩杆 – 击打主球球心以下的位置后所产生的结果
Baulk Line - the line upon which the yellow, green and brown spots are positioned
发球线 – 黄球、绿球和棕球置点之前的那道线
Break Off - the first shot of the match, played with the cue ball in the 'D'
开球 – 比赛中开出的第一杆，此杆要击打开球区中的主球
Bottle - the term given to a player's ability to ①cope with pressure
抗压力 – 用来形容选手承受压力能力的术语
Chalk - the substance used on the cue tip providing grip between the leather and the cue ball
滑石粉 – 在球杆杆头使用的物质，其作用是加大皮头和主球之间的摩擦
Cue - wooden implement used for playing
球杆 – 用于比赛的木制用具
Cue Ball - the 'white' ball; the only ball struck with the cue
主球 – “白”球；唯一可以用球杆击打的球
Cushion - rubber surrounds covered with baize
台岸 – 外覆粗呢的橡胶边岸
'D' - the semi-circle on the baulk line from which all starting strokes must be played
开球区 – 发球线上的半圆形区域，所有的开杆都必须在这一区域完成
Extension - fitted to the butt of the cue, providing additional cue length
加长杆 – 接在球杆杆尾，以便增加球杆长度
Foul Stroke - a shot or action that infringes the rules, incurring a penalty
犯规击球 – 将会受到惩罚的违规击球或行为
Free Ball - the option to play at and pot any ball, awarded after a foul shot ends in a snooker
自由球 – 在斯诺克比赛中，在（对方）出现犯规击球后获得的选择权，既可以任意击打一个球，也可以随意把一个球击进球袋
Maximum - a scoring sequence in which the player scores the maximum of 147 points
满杆 – 连续得分，直到选手打出147分的满杆
Miscue - incorrect striking of the cue ball
滑杆 – 击打主球时的失误杆
Object Ball - the target ball
目标球 – 作为目标的球
Pocket - the holes created for the balls to be potted into
球袋 – 为使球落袋而设置的球洞
Side Spin - the effect of striking the cue ball off centre
偏杆 – 击打主球球心偏侧位置后所产生的结果
Snooker - when the object ball is obstructed, making it difficult for your opponent to make a legal shot
障碍球 – 目标球被其它球阻挡，使对手难于在不违规的情况下击球
Spider - implement for cueing over another ball
三角架 – 用于架在另一只球上方以便挥杆击球的用具
Top Spin - the spin placed on the white when struck at the top
高杆 – 击打白球上方后达到的旋转效果
It Takes Balls 比赛用球
A standard set of balls for the snooker table consists of 15 reds, 6 colours and 1 white / cue ball. Historically, snooker balls were made exclusively from heavy ivory. Thankfully, these quickly became a thing of the past and were replaced before the Second World War by lighter Crystallite balls made from the crushed shin bones of cows. Today, snooker balls are entirely made from synthetic materials.
Mind Your Manners! 礼仪至上
In much the same way as golf, snooker demands high standards of etiquette and behavior from all players, at all levels, at all times. This applies in the same way to a local league match as it does to a big game in a professional tournament.
1. Shake hands with an opponent at the start and end of a match.
2. Shake hands with the referee at the start and end of a match.
3. Declare all your own fouls, at all times.
4. Do not stand in line of an opponent's shot.
5. Do not volunteer remarks about an opponent's luck whilst a match is ②in progress.
6. Do not complain about playing conditions whilst a match is in progress.
7. Do not strike matches or lighters, and try to avoid coughing whilst your opponent is at the table.
8. Do not concede a frame or match when you have missed a shot or whilst your opponent is still at the table. Wait for your opponent to finish their visit before conceding.
9. Do not argue with the referee or your opponent.
Here's a cool alternative game that can be played on a snooker table. It's called Killer.
This game is best played in groups of five or more. Set all 22 balls up in a triangle beneath the pink spot. Players then toss coins or are drawn out to decide an order of play. Each player is awarded a number of 'lives', which is normally three but may differ dependent on the number of participants. Once an order of play is established a neutral person is asked to break the balls as hard as they can to open them up around the table. Player one then comes to the table and plays from where the white ball finishes. Player one must pot a ball as failure to do so will result in the loss of one of their lives. Player two then begins from the place the white ball has finished and so on. Play rotates after each player has had their shot. Once a player has lost all their lives they are removed from the game. The game progresses until all but one player has lost all lives given to them. They are then declared the winner. A foul (normal snooker rules apply) results in the loss of a player's life.
Here are some of the most popular types of professional snooker tournaments.
Ranking Tournaments 排位赛
The top players in world rankings are automatically qualified for these types of tournaments. Other players have to struggle through the qualifying rounds to get a place. The better a player's ranking, the fewer matches he has to play to reach the main circuit. Rookies have to start in round one. The World Championship and the British Open are two of the most prestigious ranking tournaments.
Invitational Tournaments 邀请赛
These tournaments are reserved for a privileged group of players. Usually, the best ranked players will receive invitations. The organizers also like to invite some promising young players. The Benson and Hedges Masters and the Benson and hedges Irish masters are the top invitational tournaments of the season.
These tournaments were originally for amateurs only but are now open to professional players not ranked in the top 96. The best example of pro-ams tournaments is the Under-21 World Championship.
World Rankings 世界排名
The following are provisional rankings for the 2005/2006 season. They were issued after the British Open in November, 2004.
1. Ronnie O'Sullivan 龙尼•奥沙利文
2. Stephen Hendry斯蒂芬•亨德利
3. Paul Hunter保罗•亨特
4. John Higgins约翰•希金斯
5. Jimmy White吉米•怀特
6. Matthew Stevens马修•史蒂文斯
7. Stephen Maguire斯蒂芬•马格
8. Mark J. Williams马克•J•威廉姆斯
9. Joe Perry琼•佩利
10. Peter Ebdon彼得•埃布登
It may seem obvious, but the most essential skill a good snooker player can have is to be able to hit the cue ball dead centre. This ability needs to be mastered long before a player advances to side-spins. Even the pros incorporate hitting the cue ball on its centre line into their practice routines.
Whether you are an experienced player or a beginner the following method will help you to perfect this skill. Place the cue ball on the brown spot and attempt to hit it along the baulk line. ③Take your time aiming and when you think that you can hit the cue ball dead centre, take your shot. If you hit it in the centre, not only will the cue ball travel straight along the baulk line to the cushion, but it will also return along the baulk line after hitting the cushion.
If you practice this regularly, it will come naturally to you during matches.