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[洋话连篇]-市场营销词汇

LEARNING.SOHU.COM    2005年1月4日11:22    来源:[ 洋话连篇 ] 
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  英:

  Marketing is that part of the process of production and exchange that is concerned with the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer. It is popularly defined as the distribution and sale of goods. Marketing includes the activities of all those engaged in the transfer of goods from producer to consumer.

  Following are key elements to consider when developing a marketing promotion:

  Marketing mix (PPPPP)

   Determination of the Package, Price, Place (of sale), and type of Promotion

   for the Product.

  Image

   How the market or customers perceive the company or company brand and

   the products and services that it sells.

  Satisfying or creating a need

   Marketing activities can be directed towards either satisfying a need which

   is real, or creating a perceived need.

  S.W.O.T.

   Analytical process to identify Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats.

  Pricing

   Process of determining the ideal rate to charge a customer for your product or

   service. This is based upon pricing elasticity studies and consumer demand.

  Promotion planning

   Process of making decisions about the parts of the promotion mix

   (advertising, sales promotion, public relations, event marketing, and

   sponsorship). A company must establish the role and importance of each part before creating an overall promotion strategy.

  Promotion objectives

   Each part of the promotion mix is assigned a goal based on its’ potential

   contribution to the overall plan. The main objectives that should be

   considered are:

   Is it realistically achievable?

   Is it quantitative (for measurement purposes)?

   Is it aimed at a carefully defined target market?

   Is it easy to evaluate and modify if necessary?

  Promotion strategy

   The plan of action outlining ways to achieve objectives. The two types of

   strategies are ‘push’ (where the company directs promotional efforts at

   middlemen, who then promote the product among consumers), and ‘pull’

   (where the company directs its’ promotional efforts at consumers).

  Promotion budget

   The funds required for a promotion depend on 3 factors:

   Target customers -consumer products aimed at mass markets rely

   mainly on advertising, whereas business or

   industrial products (with a narrower target

   market) usually rely more on personal selling.

   Competition - based on what they’re investing in promotion.

   Life cycle - more investment in introductory and growth stages than

   the mature stage.

  中:

  市场营销是生产和交换过程的一部分,涉及到货品和服务从生产商到消费者的流通。它通常被定义为商品的分配和销售。市场营销包括了与商品从生产商到消费者转移有关的一切活动。

  以下是开展市场推广活动所必须考虑的一些关键要素:

  营销组合

   决定产品的包装、价位、销售地点和推广方式等。

  形象

   市场和消费者是怎样看待公司和公司的品牌以及公司提供的产品和服务的。

  满足和创造需求

   市场营销活动可以是为了满足市场真正存在的需求或为了创造一个可以感知的需求。

  S.W.O.T.分析法

   用来确定优势、劣势、机会和威胁的分析方法。

  定价

   决定向使用你服务和产品的顾客收取多少费用的过程。这是根据定价弹性研究和消费者的需求决定的。

  促销计划

   关于推广组合中(广告,促销,公共关系,举办活动和赞助)各部分应占多大比例的决策过程。一个公司在制定总体促销战略前必须决定各部分的角色和重要性。

  促销目标

   推广组合中的每一部分都要根据总体计划完成一个目标。

   主要应考虑的目标是:

   确实能够达到吗?

   是定量的吗(为了便于测量)?

   是否针对一个仔细定义的目标市场?

   便于评估和修改吗?

  促销战略

   指出达到目标的方法的行动计划。两种战略分别是‘推’(公司将促销力量放在中间商,由他们在消费者中促销商品)和‘拉’(公司直接将营销力量针对消费者)。

  促销预算

   促销所需要的款项主要依据3个方面:

   目标消费群 - 针对大众市场的消费品主要依靠广告,而商业和工业产品(目标市场较小)通常更多依靠个人推销。

   竞争 - 根据他们在促销中投入的多少。

   生命周期 - 在推出和增长阶段的投入比成熟期多。

  

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