Marketing is that part of the process of production and exchange that is concerned with the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer. It is popularly defined as the distribution and sale of goods. Marketing includes the activities of all those engaged in the transfer of goods from producer to consumer.
Following are key elements to consider when developing a marketing promotion:
Marketing mix (PPPPP)
Determination of the Package, Price, Place (of sale), and type of Promotion
for the Product.
How the market or customers perceive the company or company brand and
the products and services that it sells.
Satisfying or creating a need
Marketing activities can be directed towards either satisfying a need which
is real, or creating a perceived need.
Analytical process to identify Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats.
Process of determining the ideal rate to charge a customer for your product or
service. This is based upon pricing elasticity studies and consumer demand.
Process of making decisions about the parts of the promotion mix
(advertising, sales promotion, public relations, event marketing, and
sponsorship). A company must establish the role and importance of each part before creating an overall promotion strategy.
Each part of the promotion mix is assigned a goal based on its’ potential
contribution to the overall plan. The main objectives that should be
Is it realistically achievable?
Is it quantitative (for measurement purposes)?
Is it aimed at a carefully defined target market?
Is it easy to evaluate and modify if necessary?
The plan of action outlining ways to achieve objectives. The two types of
strategies are ‘push’ (where the company directs promotional efforts at
middlemen, who then promote the product among consumers), and ‘pull’
(where the company directs its’ promotional efforts at consumers).
The funds required for a promotion depend on 3 factors:
Target customers -consumer products aimed at mass markets rely
mainly on advertising, whereas business or
industrial products (with a narrower target
market) usually rely more on personal selling.
Competition - based on what they’re investing in promotion.
Life cycle - more investment in introductory and growth stages than
the mature stage.
目标消费群 - 针对大众市场的消费品主要依靠广告，而商业和工业产品（目标市场较小）通常更多依靠个人推销。
竞争 - 根据他们在促销中投入的多少。
生命周期 - 在推出和增长阶段的投入比成熟期多。