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[娱乐译文]-布什与克里的宗教态度
LEARNING.SOHU.COM    2004年8月12日14:50    来源:[ 北京青年报 ] 
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[娱乐译文]-布什与克里的宗教态度
 

  基督教在美国从来不依靠政府赞助,但美国获得独立后其文化就一直浸透在基督教新教的信仰与价值观中。政治家们在演讲中会祈求上帝的保佑,而且,当公立学校体系建立起来的时候,孩子们以进行基督教的祈祷式开始一天的学校生活。美国公民以政教分离而感自豪,不过多数人觉得政府与大多数美国人的基督教文化之间的和谐关系是极其自然的。

  而在早期的美国,其宗教就像种族一样比较单一,因此达到这种和谐是很容易的。大多数美国人有着英国人的血统,并且继续信奉英式的新教教义,这一直持续到19世纪40年代,从那时开始,欧洲向美国进行了长达80年的大规模移民,给美国带来了大量信奉罗马天主教、欧洲式新教、东正教和犹太教的人口。穆斯林与佛教徒是在二次大战后才在美国出现的。

   Christianity in America has never depended on government sponsorship. American culture after independence remained imbued with Protestant beliefs and values. Politicians invoked God in their speeches and, when public school systems were created, children began their school day with a Christian prayer. Citizens were proud of the political separation of church and state, yet most thought that harmony between the republican government and the Christian culture of most Americans was only natural①.

  But early America was, in religious as in ethnic terms, fairly homogeneous, making such harmony easy. Most Americans were of British ancestry and continued to follow British forms of Protestantism. This continued till the 1840s, when 80 years of intense European immigration began, endowing America with substantial populations of Roman Catholics, European-type Protestants, Eastern Orthodox and Jews. Muslims and Buddhists appeared on the scene after World War II.

  今天,美国人口中的基督教徒还是占压倒多数,30%信仰罗马天主教,1%-2%信仰东正教,60%甚至更多的人信仰基督教新教,或至少信奉新教文化(犹太教徒、穆斯林、佛教徒各占1%-2%)。在公立学校里孩子不再背诵基督教的祷文,但家长们可以选择把孩子送进由宗教组织资助的私立学校接受宗教教育。

  在一个有很多少数族群的社会里,政治家们能在多大程度上利用其个人的宗教信仰来证明他们在各种问题上公开立场的正当性?对政治家来说,有一种趋势是对其宗教信仰给政治观点带来的影响保持沉默。克里就是个例子,虽然看上去他是个坚定的罗马天主教徒,但如今他与天主教的主教们有了麻烦,因为他不肯支持对堕胎进行限制。在公开场合他不愿意讨论自己的宗教信仰,对此漫画家汤姆·托尔斯绝对赞成。

  Today the US population is overwhelmingly Christian: 30% Roman Catholic, 1-2% Eastern Orthodox and the remaining 60% or more (apart from the 1-2% each of Jews, Muslims and Buddhists) Protestant in belief or at least in culture. Children no longer recite Christian prayers in public schools, but parents are free to educate their offspring in private schools sponsored by religious groups.

  In a society with many minorities, how far can politicians go in using their private religious beliefs to justify their public stances on various issues? One trend is for politicians to keep silent about the impact of their beliefs on their political views. John Kerry is an example: apparently a committed Roman Catholic, yet now in trouble with Catholic bishops because he will not vote for limits on abortion. He is reluctant to discuss his religious beliefs in a public forum. Cartoonist Tom Toles no doubt approves.

  托尔斯反对的是像布什那样的政治家。布什公开地站在在美国被称为evangelical(福音派)的数百万新教教徒一边,这些教徒在好几种宗教教派中都存在,是现代美国基督教中的一股强大势力。布什看来对自己的宗教信仰相当虔诚,据说他的宗教信仰帮助他克服了酗酒的问题,而这一问题当时威胁到他的婚姻和事业。(他反对堕胎的立场也使他赢得了很多罗马天主教、东正教、正统派犹太教教徒的拥护。)与在政治上活跃的福音派新教教徒的联系对于布什谋求连任是极为重要的。与很多美国人不一样的是,这些人会去投票:在选举那天,他们会齐心协力,非常高兴地去劝说与自己想法相同的人们去投票站,因此布什竭力让他们站在自己这一边,在他的演讲里充斥着出自福音派教义的专用词句。很多观察家认为他反对同性恋婚姻在很大程度上是为了激起宗教保守派的热情。正如我们在今天这幅漫画中看到,托尔斯认为这一策略令人不安。

  It is politicians like George W. Bush that Toles objects to. Bush has openly allied himself with the millions of Protestants who in America are termed "evangelical"; found in several different denominations, they are a powerful force in modern American Christianity. Bush appears to be quite sincere in his beliefs, which reportedly helped him to overcome a drinking problem that was threatening to wreck his marriage and his career. (His opposition to abortion has also won him the favor of many Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox and Orthodox Jews.) The link with politically active evangelical Protestants is crucial to Bush's hopes of re-election. Unlike many Americans, these people vote. They will gladly cooperate in getting like-minded people to the polls on election day. So George Bush strives to keep them on his side. His speeches are peppered with phrases taken from the special language of evangelicalism, and many observers think he opposes homosexual marriage largely to fire up religious conservatives. Tom Toles, as we see in today's cartoon, finds this strategy disturbing.

   
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